zaahir.abd    -- 12-10-2003 @ 1:00 AM










Moosaa    -- 14-10-2003 @ 9:11 AM
  wa 'alaykumus-salaamu wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh

1) When one lists the names of Allaah that come in the Qur'aan, mufrad not mudhaaf, and not mushtaqq, one gets around 50 names.  These names are pretty much agreed upon that they are Allaah's Names.

2) There exists 18, by the research of Ibn 'Uthaymeen, from the authentic Sunnah, some of them explicitly mention a name of Allaah that is not found in the Qur'aan.

3) There are about 80 names in total that have very clear evidence.  They are mentioned in this thread:

4) As Shaykh Al-Islaam and others have stated, there is no authentic hadeeth identifying the intended 99 names of Allaah referred to in the hadeeth, "Allaah has 99 Names, whoever enumerates them goes to Jannah."

5) In their ijtihaads to complete 99 names, the ulamaa' took different approaches and used different priciples to arrive at them.  Some of them allowed a name to be mushtaqq from a verb, like those who considered AL-MUN'IM to be a name of Allaah, from them Ibn Mandah in At-Tawheed, based on the aayah in Al-Faatihah.  Others allowed a name that is mudhaaf or mudhaaf ilayhe to be considered a name of Allaah in the mufrad form, like An-Noor from the aayah: Noor as-samaawaati wal-ardh [Soorah an-Noor:35], like Al-Bayhaqee in his book and Sufyaan ibn 'Uyanynah as mentioned in Fat-hul-Baaree.  Ibn 'Uthaymeen as well followed this guideline somewhat in al-Qawaa'id al-Muthlaa.  Others allowed a mudhaaf and mudhaaf ilayhe phrase, the whole thing, to be considered a name of Allaah, like Thul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam, like As-Sa'dee and Ibn 'Uyaynah.  All of it is ijtihaad and there is no text from the Messenger to confirm or deny their ijtihaads.

6) For all names that we have no text for, or we doubt that the text can be used as proof to establish one of Allaah's Names, then we do not affirm that Name.

7) This lack of affirmation does not mean that we negate the name, however we do not affirm it by referring to Allaah by it, ie calling on Him with it, naming ourselves with it, etc.

8) "Ar-Rasheed" does come in the Qur'aan one time - in Soorah Hood:87

إِنَّكَ لَأَنْتَ الْحَلِيمُ الرَّشِيدُ
"Verily, you are surely Al-Haleem, Ar-Rasheed"

In shaa' Allaah, to increase the benefit of this discussion, I will stop and wait for someone else to clarify why this text does not establish the name "Ar-Rasheed" for Allaah.  Then, we will go on to see if the name "Ar-Rasheed" may be established by another text somehow, which scholars affirmed it as a name and why, and what is correct, in shaa' Allaah.

I will also pose a linguistical question:  What is the meaning of "Rasheed"?  Does it mean "guided" or "the one who guides"?  As the scale of the word is fa'eel, and a word on the scale of fa'eel can take the meaning of the maf'ool (like habeeb which means mahboob) or the faa'il (like samee' which means saami'), and sometimes both.

May Allaah reward you and increase you in goodness.

Moosaa Richardson

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك
أشهد أن لا إله إلا أنت
أستغفرك وأتوب إليك

This message was edited by Moosaa on 10-15-03 @ 10:05 PM

abu.abdul.azeez    -- 14-10-2003 @ 11:03 AM
بسم الله الرحمـن الرحيم

The aforementioned verse was directed towards Shu'ayb (not Allaah 'Azz wa Jal) by the disbelievers amongst his people. Furthermore, the statement was meant to ridicule Shu'ayb (على طريقة التهكم به), i.e. you, by enjoining what you enjoin and forbidding what you forbid, are haleem and rasheed with yourself only. This is explained by Shawkaanee, Jazaahullaahu Khayraa.

Please continue the discussion, may Allaah reward you well.

Abu 'Abdil-'Azeez al-Misree
أبو عبد العزيز المصري

This message was edited by abu.abdul.azeez on 10-14-03 @ 11:19 AM

Moosaa    -- 14-10-2003 @ 8:56 PM
  Jazaakumullaahu khayran Abaa 'Abdil-'Azeez!

Na'am, the aayah is referring to mockery of Shu'ayb's people.  That is known by looking at the entire aayah:

قَالُوا يَاشُعَيْبُ أَصَلوََاتُكَ تَأْمُرُكَ أَنْ نَتْرُكَ مَا يَعْبُدُ ءَابَاؤُنَا أَوْ أَنْ نَفْعَلَ فِي أَمْوَالِنَا مَا نَشَاءُ إِنَّكَ لَأَنْتَ الْحَلِيمُ الرَّشِيدُ
( They said: 'O Shu'ayb!  Do these prayers of yours command you (to say) that we are to leave what our fathers worship, (or that we leave off) doing what we like with our wealth?  Then verily you are Al-Haleem, Ar-Rasheed.' )

So it was indeed Shu'ayb's people mocking him, and not a reference to Allaah at all.

So then, the only time the name "Rasheed" comes in the Qur'aan  with "Al-" it refers to Shu'ayb.  The word "Rasheed" is also mentioned two other times in the Qur'aan, in the same soorah, without the "Al-", but neither of them are referring to Allaah. (See verses 97 and 78)

Next we will look at any other aayaat that might be used to establish the name "Rasheed" according to the principles of establishing Allaah's Names that some of the scholars had... and then the hadeeths that refer to the name "Ar-Rasheed"... after someone clarifies (or tries to clarify) the meaning the word "Rasheed"... in shaa' Allaah:

What is the meaning of "Rasheed"?  Does it mean "guided" or "the one who guides"?  As the scale of the word is fa'eel, and a word on the scale of fa'eel can take the meaning of the maf'ool (like habeeb which means mahboob) or the faa'il (like samee' which means saami'), and sometimes both.

This is an important discussion since a number of noteworthy scholars considered "Ar-Rasheed" to be a name of Allaah.  I am not saying it is one of the names of Allaah.  However, we will look at who from amongst the scholars did affirm it and why, in shaa' Allaah.

Moosaa Richardson

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك
أشهد أن لا إله إلا أنت
أستغفرك وأتوب إليك

This message was edited by Moosaa on 10-14-03 @ 8:58 PM

Daud.Chest    -- 14-10-2003 @ 10:10 PM
  Asalaamu Ailaykum,

Akhi Moosa, what about the name Ar-Raafia'; is that sahih?

This message was edited by Daud.Chest on 10-14-03 @ 10:12 PM

abu.abdul.azeez    -- 15-10-2003 @ 3:02 AM
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Shawkaanee said that ar-rasheed means al-murshid (one who guides) or dhee rushd (possessor of guidance) [Fath ul-Qadeer 2/626]. These both take the meaning of faa?il. Also, in each of the three instances in which the word occurred in Allaah?s Book (including the aforementioned aayah), his tafseer holds to this definition, i.e. rasheed meaning one who guides.

As for those who affirmed it as a name of Allaah, then Ibn Sa?dee mentioned it at the end of his tafseer as being one of the Names of Allaah. He likewise said that it means ??The One Who Guides (yahdee) and Directs (yurshid) His worshippers towards all of the beneficial things?? He also mentions that rasheed can mean wise (hakeem), saying that He ?Azz wa Jal is ??Rasheed in His Statements and Actions.?

As for how he derived this from an authentic text, then he does not mention that. Perhaps he used the weak 99 names dhayl reported by Bayhaqee and others in which ar-Rasheed is mentioned. Or perhaps he derived it from the statements of the Jinn regarding the Qur?aan, the Speech of Allaah which came from Him: ??it guides to ar-rushd, so we believe in it and do not associate with our Lord a single thing.? [al-Jinn 72:2]

But this is just speculation - I am very interested to see exactly how those who affirmed it as a Name of Allaah reached their conclusion. Jazaakallaahu Khayr al-Jazaa?.

Abu 'Abdil-'Azeez al-Misree
أبو عبد العزيز المصري

This message was edited by abu.abdul.azeez on 10-16-03 @ 3:37 AM

Moosaa    -- 15-10-2003 @ 11:52 AM
  Maa shaa' Allaah, na'am, rasheed means murshid, the one who guides.  Those who affirmed this name for Allaah intended the meaning of faa'il or sifah mushab-bihah bismil-faa'il, and not maf'ool.  Both ism al-faa'il (al-lathee yurshidu) and sifah (thoo rushd) were mentioned by Ash-Shawkaanee in your quote.

To be answered in this thread, in shaa' Allaah: Does the word "Rasheed" come in the 'Arabic language to mean "murshad" (maf'ool) at all?

Daud:  Wa 'alaykumus-salaam.  This will be answered in the thread in shaa' Allaah, as "Ar-Raafi'" is mentioned in the same weak hadeeth as "Ar-Rasheed".  We will look at the hadeeth and its authenticity in shaa' Allaah.

Abaa 'Abdil-'Azeez: Na'am, as-Sa'dee (d.1376) was one of those who considered Ar-Rasheed one of Allaah's Names, along with:

Al-Khattaabee (d.388)
Ibn Mandah (d.395)
Al-Bayhaqee (d. 458)
Ibn Al-'Arabee (al-Maalikee) (d.543)
Al-Qurtubee (d.671)
Ibn Al-Qayyim (d.751)
Ibn Al-Wazeer (d.840)
Siddeeq Hasan Khaan (d.1307)

This does not mean that the name "Rasheed" is established for Allaah.  We will look into each of the above's gathering of Allaah's Names and attempt to determine, either directly from their speech or, if they did not define their methods themselves, by comparing their listings to the listings found in the dha'eef hadeeth with its three different wordings, what exactly was their method, which narrations of the hadeeth did they refer to, which aayaat were being used as a proof, and how did they conclude from them that Ar-Rasheed is a name of Allaah, in shaa' Allaah...

We'll start with As-Sa'dee since you mentioned him Abaa 'Abdil-'Azeez...

Moosaa Richardson

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك
أشهد أن لا إله إلا أنت
أستغفرك وأتوب إليك

Moosaa    -- 15-10-2003 @ 9:40 PM
'Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir As-Sa'dee

Here is a list of names that As-Sa'dee affirmed in his Tafseer, those names that require investigation (ie. Those names that are not explicitly mentioned and thus the subject of ijtihaad, those mentioned explicitly in the texts will not be discussed here, however they are available in general: )

Al-Jaleel (mushtaqq & taken from idhaafah) (1,2,3)

Al-Maalik (taken from idhaafah) (3)

Al-A'laa (explicit)

Al-Haseeb (muqayyad) (1)

Ar-Raqeeb (muqayyad) (1,3)

Al-Hafeeth (muqayyad) (1)

Al-Muheet (muqayyad) (1-Tabaraanee, 3)

Al-Muqeet (muqayyad) (1-other than Tirmithee)

Al-Wakeel (muqayyad) (1,2,3)

Thul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam (1,3)

Al-Hakam, Al-'Adl (muqayyad - dha'eef al-istidlaal) (1)

Jaami' An-Naas (0)

An-Noor (taken from idhaafah) (1,2,3)

Badee'us-Samaawaati wal-Ardh (0)

Al-Mu'tee, Al-Maani' (possibly mushtaqq from the Sunnah) (2)

Ash-Shaheed (muqayyad) (1,2,3)

Al-Mubdi', Al-Mu'eed (his explanation shows he used mushtaqq clearly) (1,2,3)

Al-Fa'aal limaa yureed (0)

(Al-Ghanee,) Al-Mughnee (mushtaqq) (1)

Al-Kaafee (muqayyad) (1,2,3)

Al-Haadee (muqayyad) (1,2,3)

Ar-Rasheed (mushtaqq JIDDAN) (1)

Key to the numbers in parenthesis after mention of the name, and other terms:
(0) = Not mentioned in any of the narrations listing the names of Allaah
(1) = Mentioned in the weak hadeeth of Al-Waleed ibn Muslim
(2) = Mentioned in the weak hadeeth of 'Abdul-Malik ibn Muhammad As-San'aanee
(3) = Mentioned in the weak hadeeth of Abdul-'Azeez ibn Al-Husayn At-Turjumaan
"mushtaqq" derived from another word from the same root
"muqayyad" restricted, the opposite of mutlaq (unrestricted).  An example of muqayyad is Allaah being Raheem with the Believers, and an example of mutlaq is Allaah being As-Samee'.
"idhaafah" a kind of grammar construction like "rasool-Allaah", ie. the Messenger of Allaah, or Rabbul-'Aalameen, ie. the Lord of the 'Aalameen.

Findings about As-Sa'dee's methodology in extracting Allaah's Names from the texts:

1 - He clearly affirmed some names that are:

1) mudhaaf and mudhaaf ilayhe (like Thul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam)
2) taken from idhaafah (Al-Maalik, from Maaliki yawmid-Deen)
3) muqayyad (like Al-Haseeb)
4) mushtaqq (like Al-Mubdi', Al-Mu'eed, from Ar-Room:27 as he states clearly)

2 - He listed 86 names, apparently either not trying to list 99, or tried but stopped and did not proceed past what he could list from the Qur'aan only, wallaahu a'lam.  There is an indication from his own speech that he was only referring to the Names found in the Qur'aan:

وقد تكرر كثير من أسماء الله الحسنى في القرآن بحسب المناسبات، والحاجة داعية إلى التنبيه إلى معانيها الجامعة، فنقول:
p.945 of
تيسير الكريم الرحمن

"And many of Allaah's Names have occurred repeatedly in the Qur'aan in different occasions, so there is a need to make a point about their inclusive meanings, so I say?" [p.945, Ar-Risaalah]

And then he began listing and explaining them.

3 - Al-Mu'tee and Al-Maani' may have been taken from the Sunnah, not the Qur'aan, given his statement when he mentioned them, "there is no Maani' for the one he gives to, and no Mu'tee for the one he prevents?" which is similar to the supplication of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam) after the salaah.  However, it is possible that he took them from the Qur'aan, mushtaqq from 20:50 and its opposite meaning, wallaahu a'lam.

4 - He did not conform to any of the weak narrations listing the names of Allaah (notice the names with zeros after them and the other names, some with (1,2,3), others with (2), others with (1,3), etc.), so it seems that each name was affirmed based upon an independent ijtihaad from the texts of the Qur'aan alone, wallaahu a'lam.

I would love to hear if anyone has any other conclusions that I may have missed... Or are there any criticisms or questions about the conclusions that I have made?

We also need to look at all the possible ways (or should I say "both ways")of affirming the name "Ar-Rasheed" that the scholars may have used before we continue...

Moosaa Richardson

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك
أشهد أن لا إله إلا أنت
أستغفرك وأتوب إليك

This message was edited by Moosaa on 10-15-03 @ 10:14 PM

abu.abdul.azeez    -- 16-10-2003 @ 4:29 AM
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Here are some pertinent lines from Ibn Qayyim?s Nooniyyah:

وهو الرشيد فقوله وفعاله
رشد وربك مرشد الحيران

وكلاهما حق فهذا وصفه
والفعل للارشاد ذاك الثاني

This means:

And He is ar-Rasheed, so His Statements and His Actions are
Rushd and your Lord is the Murshid of the confused ones

And the two are the truth, so this (i.e. the first one) is His description
And the action of irshaad (guiding) yields the second

So the great Imaam said Allaah is ar-Rasheed from two angles:

(1) He is ar-Rasheed in that His Statements and Actions are Rushd. So, as the Imaam mentions, this name is derived from a description (sifah) of Him. And this is similar to what has already been stated, that ar-Rasheed can be a sifah that describes the faa?il, i.e. dhoo rushd.

(2) He is ar-Rasheed in His action of irshaad. This corresponds to a name of the faa?il.

So these are two ways by which the name ar-Rasheed can be affirmed for Allaah. I don?t have a sharh on the Nooniyyah, but am very interested to know what the Shurraah said about these verses from Ibn Qayyim. And Allaah knows best.

Abu 'Abdil-'Azeez al-Misree
أبو عبد العزيز المصري

This message was edited by abu.abdul.azeez on 10-16-03 @ 7:43 AM

Moosaa    -- 16-10-2003 @ 10:53 AM
  AhsanAllaahu ilayk -

What you have mentioned falls under one of the two ways of affirming the name "Ar-Rasheed" that I was referring to: ishtiqaaq (deriving the name from the linguistic base of the word), whether it is considered ism al-faa'il, maf'ool, or a sifah.  The other way is to use the dha'eef hadeeth.  You will notice that Shaykh Ibn 'Uthaymeen in All-Qawaa'id Al-Muthlaa did not affirm any names based on Ishtiqaaq.  He also did not base anything on any of the versions of the hadeeth listing the 99 names, since none of them are authentic.  Thus, he did not affirm the name "Ar-Rasheed".

As for affirming a name for Allaah based on any of the versions of the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah that list 99 names, then the additions mentioning the names are all dha'eef.  Perhaps, the brother Abul-Hasan Maalik can post some information from his research on the different routes of the hadeeth for further benefit either in this thread or on another.  So then since the mention of the names of Allaah in the hadeeth is not authentic, then no names can be established for Allaah based on it, since the knowledge of Allaah's Names and Attributes is tawqeefee (what we say must be based upon authentic texts).

As for affirming a name for Allaah through ishtiqaaq (which is what we have narrowed it down to for the name "Rasheed"), then we are in need of looking at the statements of the 'ulamaa' for/against the legitimacy of this way in establishing Allaah's Names...

Moosaa Richardson

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك
أشهد أن لا إله إلا أنت
أستغفرك وأتوب إليك

abu.abdul.azeez    -- 16-10-2003 @ 12:06 PM
Jazaak Allaahu Khayran. I definitely would still like to see a more detailed and thorough derivation of this name from the etymological standpoint, perhaps one of the other 'Ulamaa' you mentioned did that. I do however have a question about your statement:
An example of muqayyad is Allaah being Raheem with the Believers
But hasn't His name ar-Raheem come without taqyeed as well? I am aware that the majority of the Scholars do use that specific instance of Raheem in Soorat ul-Ahzaab with the taqyeed you mentioned to differentiate ar-Raheem from ar-Rahmaan. However, this is not something agreed upon, and Ibn 'Uthaymeen is one of those who hold that the ar-Raheem is the name of the faa'il (i.e. the one who delivers mercy to the creation) while ar-Rahmaan is the sifah (i.e. dhur-rahmat ul-waasi'ah). So I would like clarification on this - do you mean that ar-Raheem is muqayyad completely in all instances, even when it is mentioned without taqyeed in the Qur'aan, or only when it is mentioned in that particular aayah?

Baarak Allaahu feek and may Allaah reward you for your highly-beneficial research and engaging usloob.

Abu 'Abdil-'Azeez al-Misree
أبو عبد العزيز المصري

Moosaa    -- 16-10-2003 @ 12:39 PM
  aameen, wa jazaak!

"An example of muqayyad is Allaah being Raheem with the Believers"

I was referring to the aayah, and the establishing of the name "Ar-Raheem" from its wording:

وَكَانَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيمًا
"And He is, with the Believers, Raheem"

I was not referring to the overall meaning of the name, only the wording of the text itself.  I apologize for not making that clear.  To further illustrate, the aayah of Al-Faatihah "Ar-Rahmaan, Ar-Raheem" is not muqayyad in its own wording, even though the same name "Ar-Raheem" is mentioned in it.

Additionally, the word "muqayyad" here was being used to describe the textual proofs in the list above that explanation.

Moosaa Richardson

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك
أشهد أن لا إله إلا أنت
أستغفرك وأتوب إليك

This message was edited by Moosaa on 10-16-03 @ 12:51 PM

Abul.HasanMalik    -- 17-10-2003 @ 8:31 AM
  Some years ago while studying in Dammaj I did a research gatherering the chains of the hadeeth:

           إن لله تسعة و تسعين اسما, مائة الا واحدة من أحصاها دخل الجنة

"Indeed Allah has 99 names save one, whoever counts them will enter Paradise."

So I wanted to bring some of the speech of the noble scholars of Hadeeth in this thread with regards to this  narration and that which actually brings the  listing of 99 names. May Allah make it a benefit and increase us in knowledge of the authentic Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah, Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam.

Our Sheikh, Al-Muhaddith, Abu Abdir-Rahman Muqbil ibn Haadee Al-Waadi'ee, may Allah have mercy on him, says in his book أحاديث معلّة ظاهرها الصحة  (Hadeeths with hidden weaknesses that have the outward appearance of authenticity) on page 238:

قال الامام أبو محمد بن حبان كما في موارد الظمآن (ص 592): أخبرنا الحسن بن سفيان و محمد بن الحسن بن قتيبة و محمد بن أحمد بن فياض بدمشق و اللفظ للحسن قالوا حدثنا صَفْوَانُ بنُ صَالِح حدثناالوَلِيدُ بنُ مُسْلِمٍ ، حدثناشُعَيْبُ بنُ أبي حَمْزَةَ عَن أبي الزِّنَادِ عَن الأَعْرَجِ عَن أبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله: إنَّ لله تِسْعَةً وتِسْعِينَ اسْماً مِائَةً إلا وَاحِدَةٍ انّه وتر يحب الوتر مَنْ أَحْصَاها دَخَلَ الجَنَّةَ. هُوَ الله الَّذِي لا إلَهَ إلاّ هُوَ الرَّحمنُ الرَّحيمُ المَلِك القُدُّوسُ السَّلاَمُ المُؤْمِنُ المُهَيمِنُ العَزِيزُ الجَبَّارُ المُتَكَبِّر الخَالِقُ البَارِىءُ المُصَوِّرُ الغَفَّارُ القَهَّارُ الوَهَّابُ الرَّزَّاق الفتَّاحُ العَلِيمُ القَابِضُ البَاسِطُ الخافضُ الرَّافِعُ المعزُّ المذِل السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ الحَكَمُ العَدْلُ اللّطِيفُ الخَبِيرُ الحَلِيمُ العَظِيمُ الغَفُورُ الشَّكُورُ العَلِيُّ الكَبِيرُ الحَفِيظُ المُقِيتُ الحَسِيبُ الجَلِيلُ الكَرِيمُ الرَّقِيبُ المُجِيبُ الْوَاسِع  الحَكِيمُ الوَدُودُ المَجِيدُ البَاعِثُ الشَّهِيدُ الحَق الوَكِيلُ القَوِيُّ المَتِينُ الوَلِيُّ الحَمِيدُ المُحْصِي المُبْدِيءُ المُعِيدُ المُحْيِي المُمِيتُ الحَيُّ القَيُّومُ الوَاجِدُ المَاجِدُ الوَاحِدُ الأحد الصَّمَدُ القَادِرُ المُقْتَدِرُ المُقَدِّمُ المُؤَخِّرُ الأوَّلُ الآخِرُ الظَّاهِرُ البَاطِنُ المُتَعَالِ البَرُّ التَّوَّابُ المنتَقِمُ العَفُوُّ الرَّؤُوف مَالِكُ المُلْكِ ذُو الجَلاَلِ وَالإكْرَامِ المُقْسِطُ المانعُ الغَنِيُّ المُغْنِي الجامعُ الضَّارُّ النَّافِعُ النُّورُ الهَادِي البَدِيعُ البَاقِي الوَارِثُ الرَّشِيدُ الصَّبُور

He says after bringing the hadeeth: "The hadeeth is mentioned by Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh  as you see, and Al-Haakim in his Al-Mustadrak and he says, 'It is Saheeh (authentic) upon the condition of the two Sheikhs (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim).' But Imaam At-Tirmidhee, may Allah have mercy upon him, says after mentioning it by way of Safwaan ibn Saalih, 'This Hadeeth is ghareeb more than one [person] has narrated it to us from Safwaan ibn Saalih and he is thiqah (trustworthy) with the people of Hadeeth and he has narrated this hadeeth in more than one manner on Abu Hurairah from the Prophet, Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, and we do not know of anything in a large number of narrations mentioning the Names [of Allah] except this hadeeth, and Adam ibn abee Iyyaas narrated this hadeeth with another chain of narration besides this one and mentioned in it the Names [of Allah] and its chain is not authentic.'

Al-Mubaarakfuree in Tuhfatul-Ahwadhee quoted from Al-Haafidh ibn Hajr that he said, 'And the weakness [of this narration] with the two Sheikhs (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) is not just the tafarrud of Al-Waleed ibn Muslim, rather the differences in it, al-idtiraab[1], his tadlees, and the possibilty of idraaj[2].'

And refer to the speech about the weakness of the listing of the Names in Fathul-Baaree (11/215-217). And Al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer, may Allah have mercy upon him, said in the tafseer of the statement of Allah, "And for Allah are Beautiful Names so call Him by them." after mentioning the hadeeth, 'And that which a group of the scholars have resolved is that the listing of the Names [of Allah] in this hadeeth is mudraj [2] and that is only as it was reported by Al-Waleed ibn Muslim and Abdul-Malik ibn Muhammad As-San'anee from Zuhair ibn Muhammad that it reached him from more than one of the people of knowledge that they said this, meaning that they gathered them (the names) from the Qur'an as has been related from Ja'far ibn Muhammad, Suyaan ibn Uyaynah, and Abu Zayd Al-Lughawee. And Allah knows best." [End of quote from Sheikhunaa Muqbil ibn Haadee]

In working by the statement of our Sheikh: "And refer to the speech regarding the weakness of the listing of the Names [of Allah] in Fathul-Baaree?" I want to bring some of the statements of Ibn Hajr found in Fathul-Baaree, and also Al-Muhaddith Al-Mubaarakfuree from Tuhfatul-Ahwadhee to shed more light on this narration in some coming posts in this thread In sha Allah.

[1]  Al-Idtiraab: incompatibility found in chains of narration or texts with the inability to grade one superior to the other or combine between them.

[2] Al-Idraaj/Mudraj: Additional speech in a hadeeth from one of the narrators that is mistaken to be from the statement of the Messenger of Allah, Sallahu alaihu wa sallam. What is meant here is that a group of scholars believe this list of 99 names to be the addition of one of the narrators and not from the statement of the Messenger of Allah, Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam.

أهل الحديث هم أهل النبي وإن
لم يصحبوا نفسه أنفاسه صحبوا

This message was edited by Abul.HasanMalik on 10-17-03 @ 8:48 AM

Moosaa    -- 17-10-2003 @ 12:36 PM
  jazaakumullaah khayran Abal-Hasan, I look forward to your posts in shaa' Allaah...

Statements of the Scholars
About the Usage of Ishtiqaaq
to Affirm Names for Allaah

Ibn Hazm Prohibits the Use of Ishtiqaaq to Affirm Allaah's Names

Ibn Hazm (d.456) did not use ishtiqaaq in his listing of Allaah's Names.  In fact, he quoted the Aayah:

إن هي إلا أسماء سميتموها أنتم وآباؤكم ما أنزل الله بها من سلطان
"They are but names you have given them, you and your fathers, that which Allaah did not send down any authority for."

And then said:

فصح أنه لا يحل لأحد أن يسمي الله تعالى إلا بما سمى به نفسه
"Then it is correct (to say) that it is not permissible for anyone to name Allaah the Exalted except with what He has named Himself." [Al-Muhallaa, 8/183, tahqeeq Ahmad Shaakir].

Ibn Al-'Arabee Sternly Refutes Ibn Hazm

Ibn Al-'Arabee Al-Maalikee (d.543) refuted this sternly, calling Ibn Hazm a "sakheef (silly man) from a bunch of Moroccans," based on his understanding that Ibn Hazm held the beliefs of the Mu'tazilah about Allaah's Names (that they are simply names with no individual meanings) , and said:

أن الصحابة وعلماء الإسلام حين عددوا الأسماء ذكروا المشتق والمضاف والمطلق في مساق واحد إجراء على الأصل ونبذاً للقاعدة النحوية
"Verily the Companions and the scholars of Islaam, when they counted the names, they mentioned the mushtaqq, the mudhaaf, and the mutlaq all in one context, going by the base rule, and implementing the grammar principle." [Ahkaam Al-Qur'aan 2/273, Daar Al-Kitaab Al-'Arabee]

Ibn 'Arabee then proceeds to affirm names for Allaah, based on the open permissibility of ishtiqaaq, like:

Al-Mureed - The One who wants
Al-Faa'il  - The One who Does Things
Az-Zaari' - The Cultivator (of Crops)
Raabi' Ath-Thalaathah - The Fourth of Three
Saadis Al-Khamsah - The Sixth of Five

[Ahkaam Al-Quraan 2/276-277,279]

Ibn Al-Qayyim Refutes Ibn Al-'Arabee

Ibn Al-Qayyim said:

إن الصفة إذا كانت منقسمة إلى كمال ونقص لم تدخل بمطلقها في أسمائه بل يطلق عليه منها كمالها، وهذا كالمريد والفاعل والصانع، فإن هذه الألفاظ لا تدخل في أسمائه، ولهذا غلط من سماه بالصانع عند الإطلاق.
"Verily when an attribute can be divided into one of perfection (at times) and one of deficiency (at times), then it is not considered one of Allaah's Names when mentioned generally, rather He is to be referred to by it only when it refers to perfection.  This goes for "Al-Mureed", "Al-Faa'il", and "As-Saani'", since verily these phrases are not to be considered from His Names.  Based on this, those who affirmed the Name "Saani'" for Him in an unrestricted way have erred." [Mukhtasir As-Sawaa'iq, 2/34, Daar Al-Fikr]

Haafith Al-Hakamee Refutes Ibn Al-'Arabee

Haafith Al-Hakamee (d.1377) explains the dangers of going too far with ishtiqaaq, and then refutes Ibn Al-'Arabee, saying:

ومن هنا يتبين لك ما ذكرنا من النظر في بعض ما عدَّه ابن العربي، فإن الفاعل والزارع إذا أطلقا بدون متعلق ولا سياق يدل على وصف الكمال فيهما فلا يفيدون مدحاً.  أما في سياقها من الآيات التي ذُكرت فيها فهي صفات كمال ومدح وتوحيد، كما قال تعالى: ( كَمَا بَدَأْنَا أَوَّلَ خَلْقٍ نُعِيدُهُ وَعْداً عَلَيْنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا فَاعِلِينَ )، وقال تعالى: ( أَفَرَأَيْتُمْ مَا تَحْرُثُونَ  أَأَنْتُمْ تَزْرَعُونَهُ أَمْ نَحْنُ الزَّارِعُونَ ) الآيات بخلاف ما إذا عُدَّتْ مجرَّدةً عن متعلقاتها وما سيقتْ فيه وله.  وأكبر مصيبة أن عُدَّ في الأسماء الحسنى رابع ثلاثة وسادس خمسة مصرحاً قبل ذلك بقوله: وفي سورة المجادلة اسمان فذكرهما.  وهذا خطأ فاحش، فإن الآية لا تدل على ذلك ولا تقتضيه بوجه لا منطوقاً ولامفهوماً، فإن الله عز وجل قال: ( أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ مَا يَكُونُ مِنْ نَجْوَى ثَلاَثَةٍ إِلاَّ هُوَ رَابِعُهُمْ وَلاَ خَمْسَةٍ إِلاَّ هُوَ سَادِسُهُمْ وَلاَ أَدْنَى مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَلاَ أَكْثَرَ إِلاَّ هُوَ مَعَهُمْ أَيْنَمَا كَانُواْ ) الآية.  وأين في هذا السياق رابع ثلاثة وسادس خمسة؟  وكان حقه اللائق بمراده أن يقول: رابع كل ثلاثة في نجواهم وسادس كل خمسة كذلك، فإنه تعالى يعلم أفعالهم ويسمع أقوالهم كما هو مفهوم من صدر الآية، ولكن لا يليق بهذا المعنى إلا سياق الآية، والله تعالى أعلم.
"From here, what I have mentioned should become clear to you by looking at some of Ibn Al-'Arabee listed (as the Names of Allaah).  For verily, Al-Faa'il and Az-Zaari', when they are mentioned generally in no specific context that shows they are attributes of perfection, then they are not understood as any kind of praise.  As for the context they have been mentioned in within the Verses, then they are attributes of perfection, praise, and tawheed, as Allaah says:

"Just as We started the first creation, We will repeat it, a promise upon Us (to fulfill), verily We are Faa'ileen (We will do it)." [Al-Ambiyaa':104]

And Allaah says:

"Do you then see what you harvest?  Are you the ones who cultivate it, or are We the cultivators?" [Al-Waaqi'ah:63-64]

The Verses are contrary to their being mentioned without that which is related to them and their context.  And the biggest calamity is that "Raabi' Ath-Thalaathah" and "Saadis Al-Khamsah" have been listed amongst Allaah's beautiful Names, and he stated clearly prior to mentioning them, "And there are two names in Soorah Al-Mujaadilah," and then he mentioned them.  This is an obscene mistake, since verily the Verse does not prove that, nor does it denote that in any way, not literally, nor as something understood from the Verse.   For verily, Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, has said:

"Do you not see that Allaah knows all that is in the Heavens and all that is on Earth?  There is no private gathering of three except that He is the fourth of them; and no five except that He is the sixth of them; and no less than that, and no more than that, except that He is with them wherever they are." [Al-Mujaadilah:8]

So then where in this context is "Raabi' Ath-Thalaathah" or "Saadis Al-Khamsah"?  Based on what he intended, he would have rightly said: The fourth of every three who gather privately, the sixth of every five, etc.  For verily He, the Exalted, knows about their actions and hears their statements, as is understood from the beginning of the Verse, however it is not befitting to mention this meaning except within  the context of this Verse, and Allaah the Most High knows best.  [Ma'aarij Al-Qabool, 1/119]

There are many more examples of how some of the scholars affirmed some very strange names for Allaah from ishtiqaaq, like An-Naasee (the one who forgets), based on the Verse:

فَذُوقُوا بِمَا نَسِيتُمْ لِقَاءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَذَا إِنَّا نَسِينَاكُمْ
"So taste (the punishment of the Hellfire), since you forgot about the meeting on this day of yours, verily We have forgotten you!" [Sajdah:14]

Allaah's Protection is sought!

So then since there are no clear guidelines for ishtiqaaq, and no way to affirm if one's reasoning is correct or not with Allaah, then seeking safety, we ask: What is the safest way to affirm Allaah's Names, without speaking about Allaah without knowledge??

The Safest Approach in Affirming Allaah's Names

The safest approach is to only affirm Names for Allaah as they have come in the texts of the Qur'aan and the Sunnah.  This was implemented by Ibn Hazm in the past, but perhaps he did this based on the misconception that the Names of Allaah are just names with no individual meanings, thus there can be no ishtiqaaq with them at all.  This is against what Ahlus-Sunnah have affirmed, that each Name includes an Attribute of Perfection.  Refer to Exemplary Foundations p.19 and p.47.

However, we can restrict ourselves to the texts and not affirm a Name for Allaah except with an explicit text to affirm it, while affirming that each Name includes an attribute.  There is no problem in this at all.  In fact, it was the way of Ibn 'Uthaymeen when he gathered the Names of Allaah in Exemplary Foundations.

This is important to understand, since ascribing names to Allaah is definitely speaking about Him, and Allaah tells us that speaking about Him with no knowledge is from the gravest of sins:

( قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالإِثْمَ وَالبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَنْ تُشْرِكُواْ بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَاناً وَأَنْ تَقُولُواْ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ )
"Say: Verily my Lord has prohibited lewdness, that which is committed openly and in secret, sins (in general), oppression with no right, that you make shirk with Allaah in a way that He sent down no authority, and that you speak about Allaah with what you do not know." [A'raaf:33]

This is mentioned by Ibn 'Uthaymeen in Al-Qawaa'id Al-Muthlaa (p.34), Exemplary Foundations (p.29).  If you have access to this book, please review this chapter, THE FIFTH PRINCIPLE CONCERNING ALLAAH'S NAMES, for it is very beneficial.

While Ibn 'Uthaymeen affirmed some Names that were muqayyad in Al-Qawaa'id Al-Muthlaa, he did not list any names that were either mudhaaf or mushtaqq.  However, he did affirm the idea of mudhaaf Names for Allaah, saying:

ومن أسماء الله ما يكون مضافاً مثل: مالك الملك وذي الجلال والإكرام.
"Furthermore, there are other Names of Allaah that are mudhaaf, Maalikul-Mulk and Thul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam." [Al-Qawaa'id Al-Muthlaa, p.48, English translation, p.36]

And he did not mention anything about ishtiqaaq specifically.  Since he spoke quite firmly about Allaah's Names being tawqeefiyyah, and he did not affirm a single name from ishtiqaaq, it can be understood that he did not see the permissibility of affirming names for Allaah from ishtiqaaq, and Allaah knows best.

والسلامة لا يعدلها شيء!
And there is nothing like safety!

Moosaa Richardson

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك
أشهد أن لا إله إلا أنت
أستغفرك وأتوب إليك

This message was edited by Moosaa on 10-17-03 @ 1:03 PM

Abul.HasanMalik    -- 18-10-2003 @ 4:57 AM

Ibn Hajr says in Fathul-Baaree: "?and there does not come in anything from its chains the listing of the Names [of Allah] except in the narration of Al-Waleed ibn Muslim in At-Tirmidhee, and in the narration of Zuhair ibn Muhammad from Musa ibn Uqbah in Ibn Majah, and these two chains both go back to the narration of Al-'Araj and in them is a severe disparity in the listing of names, and in increasment and decreasement [of names] from that which I will point to. And there comes the mention of names also in a third chain that is collected by Al-Haakim in Al-Mustadrak and Ja'far Al-Firyaabee in adh-dhikr by way of Abdul-Azeez ibn Al-Husain from Ayyub on Muhammad ibn Seereen on the authority of Abu Hurairah, and the scholars differ about the listing of the names, is it Murfu' or mudraj in the narration from one of its narrators, so many of them held the first opinion and use it as a proof of the permissibility of naming Allah with what is not found in the Qur'an in the form of a name, because many of these names are like this.

And the others hold the opinion that the listing is mudraj due to most of the narrations being absent of it, and Abdul-Azeez An-Nakhshabee quoted this from many of the people of knowlegde. Al-Haakim said after collecting this hadeeth by way of Safwaan ibn Saalih from Al-Waleed ibn Muslim: "It is Saheeh upon the conditions of the two Sheikhs, and they did not collect it with the mention of the Beautiful Names [of Allah], and the weakness in it with them is the tafarrud of Al-Waleed ibn Muslim, and I do not know of a disagreement amongst the people of Hadeeth that Al-Waleed ibn Muslim is more trustworthy, more reliable, and more knowledgable than Bishr ibn Shu'aib, Alee ibn 'Iyaash, and other than them from the companions of Shu'aib."

He is pointing to the fact that Bishr, Alee, and Abul-Yamaan all narrate the hadeeth from Shu'aib without mention of the Names [of Allah]. So the narration of Abu Yamaan is in the Musannaf of Ibn Abee Shaibah, the narration of Alee in An-Nisaa'ee, and the narration of Bishr in Al-Bayhaqee, and the weakness [of this narration] with the two Sheikhs (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) is not just the tafarrud of Al-Waleed ibn Muslim, rather the differences in it, al-idtiraab, his tadlees, and the possibilty of idraaj. Al-Bayhaqee said, 'It is possible that the mention [of the Names] came from one of the narrators in the two chains, and therefore there came about a strong difference between them, and because of this possibility the two sheikhs left collecting the the narration with the mention [of Names].' And At-Tirmidhee said after collecting the chain of Al-Waleed: 'This Hadeeth is ghareeb more than one [person] has narrated it to us from Safwaan and he is thiqah (trustworthy) and he has narrated this hadeeth in more than one manner on Abu Hurairah, and we do not know of anything from the narrations mentioning the Names [of Allah] except this hadeeth, and this hadeeth was narrated with another chain on Abu Hurairah besides this one where the Names [of Allah] are mentioned in it and its chain is not authentic.'

And Safwaan did not narrate this alone, Al-Bayhaqee collected it by way of Musa ibn Ayyaub An-Naseebee and he is thiqah, from Al-Waleed also, it is collected by Uthmaan Ad-Daarimee in An-Naqd alal-Mareesee from Hishaam ibn Ammaar on Al-Waleed, and said, 'From Khaleed on Qataadah from Muhammad ibn Seereen on the authority of Abu Hurairah, and mentioned it without the names, and Al-Waleed said: Sa'eed ibn Abdul-Azeez relayed  it to us like this, and said, 'All of them are in the Qur'an: He is Allah, there is no diety worthy of worship besides Him, He is Ar-Rahman Ar-Raheem, then he listed the names. And it is colleted by Abush-Sheikh ibn Hibbaan from the narration of Abee Amir Al-Qurashee from Al-Waleed ibn Muslim with another chain, he said, 'Zuhair ibn Muhammd narrated to us from Musa ibn Uqbah on Al-'Araj on the authority of Abu Hurairah', Zuair said, 'It reached us that more than one of the people of knowledge said that it should be started with La ilaha illallah then the list of the names', and this chain was collected by Ibn Majah and Ibn Abee Aasim, and Al-Haakim collected it by way of Abdul-Malik ibn Muhammad As-San'aanee from Zuhair ibn Muhammad except he listed the names first and then said after his statement: Whoever preserves them enters Paradise: Allah, Al-Waahid, As-Samad, until the end of the list, then said after: Zuair said, 'It reached us that more than one of the people of knowledge said that it should be started with La ilaha illallah then the listing of the names' I say: Al-Waleed ibn Muslim is more reliable than Abdul-Malik ibn Muhammad As-San'aanee, and the narration of Al-Waleed seems that the names are mudraj, and in the narration of Al-Waleed on Zuhair three names reoccur and they are: ((Al-Ahad, As-Samad, Al-Haadee)), and there comes in the narration of Abdul-Malik instead of them: ((Al-Muqsit, Al-Qaadir, Al-Waalee)). And from Al-Waleed also: ((Al-Waalee, Ar-Rasheed)) and from Al-Waleed: ((Al-Aadil, Al-Muneer)) and from Abdul-Malik ((Al-Faatir, Al-Qaahir)) and they agreed upon the remainder.

After this Ibn Hajr continues to examine the disparity in the list of names, and we will bring the remainder of his speech in the coming posts of this thread if Allah wills.

أهل الحديث هم أهل النبي وإن
لم يصحبوا نفسه أنفاسه صحبوا

dksadiq    -- 27-05-2011 @ 8:01 AM
جزاكم الله خيرا

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