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Posted By Topic: Tafseer of Soorah Al-Kahf 18:23-24 with lughah benefits

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Moosaa
20-01-2003 @ 12:00 AM    Notify Admin about this post
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Bismillaah, alhamdulillaah, wa laa ilaaha illAllaah, wa Allaahu akbar, wa ba'd:

"I have been told that the expanation of the aayah 18
:23,24 ["And never say of anything, "I shall do such and such thing tomorrow." Except (with the saying), "If Allh will!" And remember your Lord when you forget and say: "It may be that my Lord guides me unto a nearer way of truth than this."] is that when we forget to say insha'Allaah then we are to say the du'a that is mentioned at the end of the aayah. Is this correct?"

The aayah:



The meaning: "And do not say about anything (O Muhammad) that you are going to do it tomorrow, except (that you say) 'If Allaah wills', and remember your Lord when you have forgotten, and say, 'I hope that my Lord will guide me to something closer to correctness than this'"

Saying "in shaa' Allaah" is called ISTITHNAA' (), and in this aayah Allaah teaches His Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam), and all of the members of his ummah as well, to not speak decisively about future events and to make istithnaa in his (and our) speech about future events:



"And do not say about anything (O Muhammad) that you are going to do it tomorrow, except (that you say) 'If Allaah wills'"

At-Tabaree mentions that this was directed to the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam) after he promised to respond the next day to a question about the affair of the people of the cave, but did not make istithnaa', so the revelation was withheld for 15 days, until the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam) became distressed.  Then when the aayaat were revealed about the people of the cave (the aayahs immediately preceding these two), this command followed it and was a lesson for the Prophet (sallallaah 'alayhe wa sallam). [Tafseer At-Tabaree 8/208, Al-Kutub Al-'Ilmiyyah]

Ibn Katheer also mentioned this. [Tafseer Ibn Katheer 5/148, Taybah]

One may say, "In shaa' Allaah," when making istithnaa', or, "illaa an yashaa' Allaah" as is found directly in the aayah.  At-Tabree mentioned this.

As for the statement:



"And remember your Lord when you have forgotten"

The scholars have two explanations of this:

(1) in one's speach: he says he will do something but forgets the istithnaa', so then he is to say it when he remembers.  This was the position of Ibn 'Abbaas, Al-Hasan Al-Basree and Aboo 'Aaliyah.  Ibn 'Abbaas says he makes istithnaa' in his oath, even if he has forgotten for an entire year to say it, he says in when he remembers.  Other scholars said: even up to 10 years, he still says, "in shaa' Allaah" when he remembers. [Tafseer At-Tabaree]

Also, Ibn Abee Haatim mentions in his Tafseer that Ibn 'Abbaas said, "This is something specific to the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam), and it is not upon any of us to make istithnaa' (after forgetting), except in oaths." [12762]

(2) It means to remember Allaah when you fall into sins, "forgotten" in this case would mean "sinned", thus: "And remember your Lord when you have sinned."  This was the opinion of 'Ikrimah.  Ibn Abee Haatim and Ibn Katheer reported that 'Ikrimah said, "when you have become angry."  Notice the similarity in the 'arabic phrases:

(when you have sinned as in At-Tabaree's narration)
(when you have become angry as in Ibn Abee Haatim's and Ibn Katheer's narration)

And as for Allaah's Statement, and this is what will address the concern mentioned in the original question:



"And say, 'I hope that my Lord will guide me to something closer to correctness than this'"

At-Tabaree says, "It has been said that this is something that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam) was ordered to say when he would forget istithnaa' in his speech about the future, he says it along with "in shaa' Allaah' when he remembers." [Tafseer At-Tabaree 8/209]

At-Tabaree mentions a narration that has a mubham (an unnamed narrator) in it that Yahyaa ibn 'Abbaad said that a man's tawbah or expiation from speaking about the future without istithnaa' is that he says, "I hope that my Lord will guide me to something closer to correctness than this." (directly from the aayah) [22995]

Some 'arabic language benefits :


"tomorrow" - maf'ool feehe, (and as for the meaning it is obviously not restriced to the day after today, but rather it means all days in the future, like:


"Let (every) soul look forward to what it will do tomorrow, and fear Allaah")


"WHEN you forget" as you will forget as you are only a man, notice that it is not:


IF you forget


tamyeez
or maf'ool mutlaq

And Allaah knows best.

Moosaa

********************




This message was edited by Moosaa on 1-20-03 @ 1:29 PM

alykhan.somani
20-01-2003 @ 12:00 AM    Notify Admin about this post
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...

This message was edited by alykhan.somani on 7-13-05 @ 4:08 AM

Moosaa
20-01-2003 @ 12:00 AM    Notify Admin about this post
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SOME MORE BENEFITS CONCERNING
    I S T I T H N A A'

1) Istithnaa' was prescribed for the previous prophets as well, as is evident from the story of Sulaymaan ('alayhis-salaam) in Bukhaaree and Muslim:


On the authority of Aboo Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him), on the authority of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam), who said that Sulaymaan ibn Daawood ('alayhimaa as-salaam) said, "Verily I will have intercourse with 100 (of my) women tonight, or 99, and all of them will produce a boy who will be a horseman fighting in the way of Allaah."  His companion said to him, "In shaa' Allaah," but he did not say in shaa' Allaah (himself).  So then none of them got pregnant, except one who delivered a deformed child.  (The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam then said:) By Allaah, the One is whose Hand is the soul of Muhammad, if he would have said 'in shaa' Allaah', they would have been born and become horsemen fighting all together in the way of Allaah."

2) Abandoning istithnaa' is a cause for the denial of what is sought after, as is evident from the story of Sulaymaan above, and from the story of the people of the Garden in Soorah Noon:


"And verily we tried them, just as we tried the companions of the garden, when they swore to reap (their harvests) in the morning, and they did not make istithnaa', so then a taa'if (a fire) from your Lord came upon it (their garden) while they were sleeping.  Then it (the garden) was (burnt) pitch black in the morning."  [See the aayats after these as well]

3) Istithnaa' in du'aa (supplications) is prohibited, based on the hadeeth in Bukhaaree and Muslim:


On the authority of Aboo Hurayrah, the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam) said, "Do not let any of you say 'O Allaah, forgive me if you want, O Allaah, have Mercy on me if You want.'  Let him be firm in his request, as there is no one to force Allaah to do anything."

So we should not say, "O Allaah give me Firdows in shaa' Allaah", nor should we say, "in shaa' Allaah" to respond to other people's du'aa, rather we should word our supplications strongly and say "Aameen" rather than "in shaa' Allaah", as "aameen" is a very strong phrase itslef, meaning: "Answer the request O Allaah"

4) Istithnaa' is not necessary when speaking about the future events that we know will happen based on the revelation, however one may say, "Allaah will gather the people at the mawqif, in shaa' Allaah."  The meaning here is more of a tahqeeq, see the next point.

5) One should make istithnaa' when referring to himself as a mu'min, as Al-Aajurree discussed in Ash-Sharee'ah, and this was something taught to us by the Shaykh Rabee'us-Sunnah in his lessons from that book.  When one says, "I am a mu'min in shaa' Allaah."  He means that he is a Muslim who believes in Allaah, with certainty, not a person who doubts his eemaan.  This is the way of the people of the Haqq, as Al-Aahurree said [2/656].

Yahyaa ibn Sa'eed said, "I never met anyone from the people of knowledge, except that he was upon istithnaa' (when ascribing eemaan to himself)." [Ash-Sharee'ah 2/660]

So when saying that one is a believer in Allaah, he says "in shaa' Allaah" not from doubt, but from firm conviction.  And this is found in the arabic language, like in the aayah [Al-Fat-h 27]:


"You will enter Al-Masjid Al-Haraam safely, in shaa' Allaah"

And in the hadeeth:


"As-Salaamu 'alaykum, oh abode of a believing people (the graves), and verily we, in shaa' Allaah, will be joining you."

In both cases above, istithnaa' is used for tahqeeq, or conviction, not for any form of doubt.  

And if he leaves off istithnaa' when mentioning his eemaan, then this is the basis of IRJAA', as 'Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Mahdee said.  This means that the murji'ah say and believe that they are mu'minoon with the same eemaan as Jibreel, since they believe eemaan is not made up of levels, rather it is just something that you either have it or not.  So they say, "I am a mu'min" without saying in shaa' Allaah, based on that.

The shaykh then mentioned a statement from Ibn Taymiyyah, that one's statement, "I am a Mu'min" is just like his statement, "I am a Muslim", so based on this, there is no need for istithnaa'.

Thus, the istithnaa' when mentioning your eemaan has many issues related to it.  When you mean "I am a Mu'min who does not doubt Allaah" then the istithnaa' means confirmation.  When you mean "I am a Mu'min who is above the level of a mere Muslim, as I have abandoned sinning, etc" then the obligatory istithnaa' here means:


I hope to be like that

Refer to the related chapter in Ash-Sharee'ah for more information on this last point.

And Allaah knows best.

Moosaa

********************




This message was edited by Moosaa on 1-20-03 @ 6:04 PM

Moosaa
21-01-2003 @ 12:00 AM    Notify Admin about this post
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Since we are on the topic of ISTITHNAA'...

Is it permissible to say:



Why or why not?

********************




This message was edited by Moosaa on 1-21-03 @ 9:51 AM

ummu`Isa
21-01-2003 @ 12:00 AM    Notify Admin about this post
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Bismillaah innal hamdulillaah was salaatu was salaamu 'ala Rasoolillaah wa ba'd...

as salaamu 'alayka wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh

Jazaakullaahu khayran!

"ya hayyu ya qayyum bi rahmatika astagheethu aslihli shanee kullahu wa la takilnee ilaa nafsee tarfata `ayn."






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