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Moosaa
12-19-2008 @ 12:45 AM    Notify Admin about this post
Abul-'Abbaas Moosaa ibn John Richardson (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia)
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Prayer Schedules
Important Rulings, Guidelines, and Cautions


- PART ONE of TWO -


Introduction

In the Name of Allaah, the All-Merciful, the Ever Merciful, may He raise the rank of His last Prophet and Messenger, Muhammad, and that of his family and companions, and may He grant them all an abundance of peace.

This concise article covers some very important topics about prayer schedules ı the ruling on using them, the possibility of human error in them, the ruling on relying on them totally, rulings related to prayer performed based on a misjudgment of the prayer time, and the need to advise others about confirmed mistakes in prayer schedules.

I have done my best to gather the statements of the best of the modern day scholars who spoke about the issue of prayer schedules specifically, the likes of Shaykh al-Albaanee, Shaykh Ibn Baaz, Shaykh Ibn 'Uthaymeen, and others (may Allaah have Mercy on them).  I pray that Allaah blesses this work and causes it to reach some of his believing servants and benefit them, and that He overlooks some of the sins of its compiler because of it.  Verily, Allaah is Generous and Merciful.(1)

I. The Legislated Times for the Five Daily Prayers

The Muslims have never differed over the fact that the five daily prayers have specific times that have been legislated in the Sharee'ah.(2)   Allaah, the Almighty, has said, "Verily, prayers have been prescribed upon the believers at set times."

The following is a listing of the times of the five daily prayers, with a brief reference to their relative proofs from the Book and the Sunnah:(3)

Thuhr ("Noon") Prayer: It begins just after the sun's zenith (or "high noon"), as soon as it begins to decline, as the scholars have unanimously agreed.(4)   Its time extends until the entrance of 'Asr Prayer, according to the hadeeth, "The (time of) Thuhr is when the sun has begun to decline, until one's shadow is as long as his height, until the entrance of 'Asr time."(5)

'Asr (Afternoon) Prayer: As mentioned clearly in the previous hadeeth, the time of 'Asr Prayer begins at a mid-way point between Thuhr and Maghrib, when a person's shadow is as long as his height.(6)   The time of 'Asr extends until sunset.  The Prophet (may Allaah raise his rank and grant him peace) said, "Whoever has prayed one rak'ah (unit) of the 'Asr Prayer before sunset has caught the (time of) 'Asr."(7)

Maghrib ("Sunset") Prayer: It begins after the sun has completely set, according to scholarly concensus.(8)   Its time extends until the entrance of 'Eshaa' Prayer.  The Prophet (may Allaah raise his rank and grant him peace) said, "And the time of Maghrib Prayer extends so long as there is some glow left on the (Western) horizon."(9)   This period of time is usually a little over an hour in most places.

'Eshaa' (Evening) Prayer: It begins after the last glow of the sun has left the Western horizon.  Its time extends until half of the night.  The Prophet (may Allaah raise his rank and grant him peace) said, "And the (time of) 'Eshaa' extends to half the night."(10)

Fajr (Dawn) or Subh Prayer: It begins at the first light of the dawn of the sun, the first glow on the Eastern horizon where the sun will rise from.  This is understood from the Verse, "ıUntil the white thread (of the dawn) becomes distinguishable from the black thread."(11)  It extends until the sun begins to rise, according to the hadeeth, "And the (time of) Subh Prayer is from the first light of dawn until sunrise."(12)   This period of time is usually a little over an hour in most places.

These are the times of the five daily prayers in Islaam, as Jibreel (peace be upon him) taught Muhammad (may Allaah raise his rank and grant him peace).  The times of the prayers are all based on the positions of the sun, in a way that makes it easy for the majority of the people on earth to know them without any difficulty whatsoever.

As stated by the Permanent Committee of Scholars for Research and Fatwaa: "The easy way that is in line with the fitrah (the natural state things are created upon) is to rely on the indications in nature (the positions of the sun) that have been indicated in the Islaamic Legislation to determine the times of the prayers."(13)

II. The Need for Prayer Schedules and Their Benefits

In light of what has preceded, what then could the need be for prayer schedules?  The following list shows a number of benefits achieved through the use of prayer schedules:

    Blind and visually impaired people can receive alerts based on them.
    Some people can not see the horizon clearly for Fajr and Maghrib, due to a view obstructed by buildings, mountains, or even air pollution.
    Some people work or live in places without access to a view of the sky, like underground floors of a large building, mines, or submarines.
    Some people live in excessively cloudy or smog-ridden cities, and can not often get a good view of the sun's positions.
    Travelers can have an idea about the times of the prayers before they go to a new location.
    Islaamic center organizers can plan congregational prayers and events around them, even when the events are many months away.


III. The Permissibility of Using Prayer Schedules

Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allaah have Mercy on him) said, "ıAnd it is well known that people who live in well-lit (large, modern) cities can not determine the time of Fajr's entrance based on their own sightings (of the horizon).  Thus, it is upon them to be cautious and go by the athaan and by prayer schedules that determine the time of Fajr's entrance according to the hour and minuteı"(14)

The Permanent Committee of Scholars for Research and Fatwaa stated: "These prayer schedules are something that imaams (leaders of congregational prayers) and mu'ath-thins (those who call the athaan) can benefit from to be aware of the approximate times for the prayersı"(15)

There is a need to elaborate on this general permissibility, as guidelines for the use of prayer schedules are very important.

IV. Prayer Schedules are Mere Estimates

Prayer schedules are only estimates, and they must not be taken as absolute.

The Permanent Committee of Scholars for Research and Fatwaa stated: "Determining prayer times based on astronomical calculations,(16)  while they are merely estimates, is not something easily accessible to everyone."(17)

V. Prayer Schedules are Prone to Human Error

Prayer schedules were not revealed by Allaah, rather, they are the results of human efforts.  So they are bound to have some errors in them.  Allaah has said, "Had it (the Qur'aan) been from other than Allaah, they would have found many discrepancies therein."(18)

The Permanent Committee of Scholars for Research and Fatwaa stated: "Schedules are a kind of ijtihaad (reasoned deductions), those who produce them are human beings who are erroneous sometimes and correct sometimesı"(19)

VI. The Impermissibility of Following Prayer Schedules in Contradiction to Islaamically Legislated Times for the Prayers

The previous fatwaa continues, "ıThose who produce them are human beings who are erroneous sometimes and correct sometimes.  Therefore, it is not befitting that we assign the exact times of the beginnings and endings of our prayers and fasts based on them, because their beginning and ending times have come in the Book and the Sunnah, and we must rely on what the Legislative evidences have indicated."(20)    

The Permanent Committee also stated: "These prayer schedules are something that imaams (leaders of congregational prayers) and mu'ath-thins (those who call the athaan) can benefit from to be aware of the approximate times for the prayers.  However, we must not rely on them in an absolute way when fasting and breaking the fast, since Allaah has attached the ruling (of fasting) to the entrance of Fajr until the nightfall (the entrance of Maghrib)ı"(21)

Prayer schedules are estimates that help us organize our time, however, we are not to abandon the Islaamically legislated way of determining the prayer times by the sun's positions.  Without keeping this in mind, one may rely solely on the schedule and actually offer a prayer before its time because of a mistake in the schedule or in its reading, and thus his prayer would be invalid.

True story: About 12 years ago in America, I came to a masjid a few minutes before sunset.  A group of Muslims were preparing to leave, so I invited them to stay for Maghrib.  They informed me that they had already prayed!  So I walked outside with them and we looked at the sun just above the horizon.  It was the day after the time change caused by Daylight Savings Time in the spring.  So everyone put their clocks ahead by one hour, and apparently this was not reflected in the prayer schedule, so without paying attention to the sun's position, they prayed according to the schedule ı a prayer that was not acceptable since it was offered before its legislated time!(22)

Another true story: Shaykh Al-Albaanee (may Allaah have Mercy on him) said:

quote:
And I have seen this myself many times from my home in Jabal Hamlaan in south-east Amman.  It allowed me to confirm what had been claimed by some devout advisors concerned for the Muslims' worship, that the athaan of Fajr in some of the Arab lands is called before the time of the true Fajr  by a period of between 20 and 30 minutes, even before the false Fajr!  And I had often heard the iqaamah of Fajr Prayer from some of the masjids being called along with the entrance of the true Fajr, meaning that they had called the athaan a half hour before its time.  This means that they had prayed the Sunnahs of Fajr before the entrance of Fajr's time, and they had occasionally hurried the actual Fajr prayer as well, in the month of Ramadhaan, as I heard over the radio station in Damascus while I was eating my suhoor (pre-dawn meal before fasting) last Ramadhaan (in the year 1406).

This makes things difficult on the people, forcing them to stop eating before they have to, and it subjects their Fajr prayer to the danger of being unacceptable.  And the only reason for this is that the people have relied upon astronomical calculations and turned away from the legislated times of the prayers: "Eat and drink until the white thread becomes clear to you from the black thread of the dawn."  "Eat and drink until the red glow begins to spread."  This is a reminder, and the reminder benefits the believers.
(23)

***

Coming in Part 2 of this article in shaa' Allaah:
VII. Ruling on Prayers Based on Mistaken Estimations of Prayer Times
VIII. The Obligation of Warning Others of Erroneous Prayer Schedules
Conclusion and Summary of How Prayer Schedules are to be Used

Footnotes:
  (1)Written by Moosaa Richardson (may Allaah forgive him) on the 20th of Thul-Hijjah, 1429.
  (2)Refer to: al-Mughnee (2/8).
  (3)Interesting Benefit: When discussing the times of the five prayers, the scholars customarily begin with Thuhr Prayer, since Jibreel began with it when he taught the Messenger (may Allaah raise his rank and grant him peace), who also began with it when he taught his companions, who similarly began with it when they taught their students.
  (4)Refer to: al-Mughnee (2/9).
  (5)Saheeh Muslim (#612)
  (6)Aboo Haneefah (may Allaah have Mercy on him) considered the time of 'Asr to begin some time considerably after this point, however, "He has opposed the narrations and the rest of the scholars, and thus his own students opposed him in this," as Ibn 'Abdil-Barr said.  Refer to al-Mughnee (2/14).
  (7)Saheeh Muslim (#608)
  (8)Refer to: al-Mughnee (2/24).
  (9)Saheeh Muslim (#612)
  (10)Saheeh Muslim (#612)
  (11)A translation of the meaning of Soorah al-Baqarah (2:187)
  (12)Saheeh Muslim (#612)
  (13)Fataawaa al-Lajnah ad-Daa'imah (6/141)
  (14)Majmoo' Fataawaa wa Maqaalaat Mutanawwa'ah (15/286)
  (15)Fataawaa al-Lajnah ad-Daa'imah (6/140), the remainder of this quote is mentioned later in the article.
  (16)It is important to note that not all prayer schedules are based on astronomical calculations.
  (17)Fataawaa al-Lajnah ad-Daa'imah (6/141)
  (18)A translation of the meaning of Soorah an-Nisaa' [4:82]
  (19)Fataawaa al-Lajnah ad-Daa'imah (6/141), the important conclusion to these words follow in the next quote.
  (20)Fataawaa al-Lajnah ad-Daa'imah (6/141)
  (21)Fataawaa al-Lajnah ad-Daa'imah (6/140-141)
  (22)Later in this article we will discuss the rulings on prayers performed because of a mistake in reading the prayer schedule, in shaa' Allaah.
  (23)The "true Fajr" is what was described earlier in the article as the time of Fajr.  The "false Fajr" is a thin light that appears from the same place a short time before that.
  (24)Silsilatul-Ahaadeethis-Saheehah (5/52)


Moosaa ibn John Richardson

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Dardan
12-21-2008 @ 2:58 AM    Notify Admin about this post
Abu Maryam Dardan bin Saadri al-Albanee (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia)
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The True and False Dawn!

In Science langauge (if I can call it that)Is true dawn known as Nautical twilight and false dawn as Astronomical twilight?

Abu Maryam Al-Albanee

Adnaan.ibn.Salman
12-27-2008 @ 6:20 AM    Notify Admin about this post
Abu 'Abdirrahmaan Adnaan ibn Salman (Birmingham, UK.)
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Bismillaahirrahmaanirraheem,

Please refer to the following:

http://www.box.net/shared/y5im6y224p

http://www.box.net/shared/nrsdzuszb3

A copy of this is below:

Wassalaam,

Adnaan

_________________________________________________

Bismillaahirrahmaanirraheem,

This is just to follow up Moosaa Richardsonıs (hafizahullaah) article. I thought it would be interesting to look at different prayer timetables and methods of calculating prayer times.

www.al-islam.com defines 5 different methods of calculation (http://prayer.al-islam.com/help.asp?l=eng). As you can see there are significant differences.

The website also provides a program which allows you to calculate times for your city using the method of you choice (http://prayer.al-islam.com/). If you do this for London, for two days in the summer and winter, for example, you can see that the times vary widely (see table at end of article). Something also seems to go horribly wrong with the calculations in the summer, as, for 3 of the 5 prayer methods both Fajr and ıIshaa are said to start at 4 am!

www.guidedways.com also provides software for calculating prayer times. Again you have a choice of the same five methods of calculation. However, they seemed to have fixed the problem for calculating times in the summer. Still, there is marked variation in timings, up to 53 minutes for fajr in the summer for example (see table).

Perhaps the most troublesome area for timetables is the start of fajr. Of course this is very important, as people may end up doing Fajr too early. Also they may end up starting their fast too early in Ramadaan. If we go back to the definition of fajr quoted in the article:

Fajr (Dawn) or Subh Prayer: It begins at the first light of the dawn of the sun, the first glow on the Eastern horizon where the sun will rise from.  This is understood from the Verse, "Until the white thread (of the dawn) becomes distinguishable from the black thread." [2:187]

The key point is that the light of dawn should begin to spread across the horizon, so that one can distinguish the sky from the horizon.

Now, have a look at the definitions of the various types of twilight according to astronomers (specifically the US Naval Observatories http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/RST_defs.php):

Civil twilight is defined to begin in the morning, and to end in the evening when the center of the Sun is geometrically 6 degrees below the horizon. This is the limit at which twilight illumination is sufficient, under good weather conditions, for terrestrial objects to be clearly distinguished; at the beginning of morning civil twilight, or end of evening civil twilight, the horizon is clearly defined and the brightest stars are visible under good atmospheric conditions in the absence of moonlight or other illumination. In the morning before the beginning of civil twilight and in the evening after the end of civil twilight, artificial illumination is normally required to carry on ordinary outdoor activities. Complete darkness, however, ends sometime prior to the beginning of morning civil twilight and begins sometime after the end of evening civil twilight.

Nautical twilight is defined to begin in the morning, and to end in the evening, when the center of the sun is geometrically 12 degrees below the horizon. At the beginning or end of nautical twilight, under good atmospheric conditions and in the absence of other illumination, general outlines of ground objects may be distinguishable, but detailed outdoor operations are not possible, and the horizon is indistinct.

Astronomical twilight is defined to begin in the morning, and to end in the evening when the center of the Sun is geometrically 18 degrees below the horizon. Before the beginning of astronomical twilight in the morning and after the end of astronomical twilight in the evening the Sun does not contribute to sky illumination; for a considerable interval after the beginning of morning twilight and before the end of evening twilight, sky illumination is so faint that it is practically imperceptible.

So, for the sake of argument, according to these definitions, fajr should start sometime between the start of nautical twilight and the start of civil twilight ı i.e. when the sun is between 12 and 6 degrees below the horizon. According to this therefore all of the methods of calculating prayer-times above are incorrect and calculate fajr too early ı using angles which are more in keeping with astronomical twilight.

The USNO helpfully also has a program (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/RS_OneYear.php) which allows you to calculate the various twilights. Going through the same exercise for London, you can see how these times compare with the original times generated by the 5 calculation methods (see table).

To summarize, I think that this illustrates two important points:
ı     Prayer calculation methods vary significantly between themselves
ı     Apparently all the prayer calculation methods consistently estimate fajr too early. This would mean that if someone followed these timetables rigidly they would be likely to pray fajr too early, when there would be a danger of it being invalid ı wallaahulmustaıaan!

"Had it (the Qur'aan) been from other than Allaah, they would have found many discrepancies therein." [4:82]

Inshaa Allaah, we await Part II of Moosaaıs article.

Wallaahu taıaalaa aılam wasallallaahu ıalaa Muhammad wasallam





Table can be accessed at http://www.box.net/shared/nrsdzuszb3


Dardan
12-28-2008 @ 10:45 PM    Notify Admin about this post
Abu Maryam Dardan bin Saadri al-Albanee (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia)
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As-Salamu Alaikum!

In my country Kosovo, the Islamic Community puts Maghrib 6-7 minutes after the estimated sunset so people dont break their fast too early, and brings forth fajr 20 minutes before the estimated time so people dont eat at the wrong time and thus their fast e accepted, but however they pray Fajr like 30 or 45 minutes before the estimated sunrise, so their prayers are accepted.

I, and many brothers made many critis regarding their method.  But, after all, does this mean that they were correct?   Should we also follow a similar method?    

My apartment while I was in Kosovo was facing the west, and I had no idea when we go into fajr, and plus on the west I had buildings everywhere, and I didn't have a chance to view sunset either.  

Abu Maryam Al-Albanee

sajid_chauhan_81
12-30-2008 @ 6:00 PM    Notify Admin about this post
unspecified ساجد (Mumbai (India))
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AhsanAllaahu ilaykum akh Moosaa. Probably the following references will aid you further in researching on this issue:

Majmoo al-fatawa of Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymeeyah (25/126-202)
Al-Majmoo of an-Nawawee (6/279)
At-Talkheesul-Habeer of Ibn Hajr (2/187-188)

These were taken from page no. 7 of http://albaseerah.com/theark17.html

Moosaa
12-30-2008 @ 10:47 PM    Notify Admin about this post
Abul-'Abbaas Moosaa ibn John Richardson (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia)
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Jazaak Allaahu khayran for this information!

pt.2 on the way in shaa' Allaah... (thanks for your patience)

Moosaa ibn John Richardson

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musa.ibn.wendell
01-01-2009 @ 2:27 AM    Notify Admin about this post
Abu Musa Musa Ibn Wendell Ball (Baltimore, Maryland, USA)
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Bismillah alhamdulillah was salaatul was salaamu ala Rasulullah salla Allahu alaihi wa alihi wa sahbihi aj'meen, wa ba'd:

as salaamu alaikum wa rahmahtullahi wa barakatuh

Barak Allahu Feekum wa Jazakum Allahu Khayran Fee Dunyah wa Akhirah, ameen.

Akhi Moosa, if you could for benefit of the people, find anything from The Qur'an and The Sunnah concerning the following, InShaAllah:

1.  Which prayer is the first prayer of the day?

2.  Which prayer is the last prayer of the day?

3.  What is the ruling concerning daylight savings time?

4.  What is the ruling concerning leap year?

Also akhi, in addition to the above there are two other questions relating to age.

1.  When one are given the ages of the mashaykh, are they given the ages according to the gregorian calendar or according to the hijrah calendar?

2.  How can anyone find out what their age and birthdate would be according to the hijrah calendar?

Barak Allahu Feekum wa Jazakum Allahu Khayran Fee Dunyah Wa Akhirah, ameen.

Subhanak Allahumma Wa Bihamdika. Ashhadu Anla Illaha Illa Anta Astagfiruka Wa Atubu Ilaik.

As salaamu alaikum wa rahmahtullahi wa barakatuh.



Abu Musa Musa Ibn Wendell Ball Al Amriki

Baltimore, Maryland, USA

'Come and Sit With Us So That We Can Have Eaaman For An Hour' (Page 82 - Causes Behind the Increase and Decrease of Eemaan

Moosaa
01-03-2009 @ 12:11 AM    Notify Admin about this post
Abul-'Abbaas Moosaa ibn John Richardson (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia)
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Wa 'alaykumus-salaamu wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh...

My compliments to the writer of the comment below the timetable in the Baseerah newsletter - maa shaa' Allaah.

Akhee Musa - may Allaah bless you - as for the first prayer of the day, then if you mean by day = yawm (24hrs), then it is maghrib, as the day on the Islaamic calendar begins with the sunset.  Thus the last prayer of the day would be Asr.

However, if you mean day, as in nahaar (daylight), then of course Fajr is the first prayer of the day, and 'Eshaa' would be the last.  With this understanding, some scholars thought that this is why 'Asr is called "as-Salaat al-Wustaa" (the Middle Prayer).

Ages of the mashaayikh should be given in hijri years, as we should mention our own ages.  A person who has reached 60 (hijri) years, is 60 years old, not 58 as the non-Muslims would consider him based on their method of keeping track of the years.  This plays an important role in a Muslim's life, for example the parent is responsible for ordering the child to pray when he reaches seven years (not 7 and a quarter years based on Gregorian calendars).  Thats hijri, not gregorian.  Likewise, 10 years for the other part of the hadeeth.  Likewise, 15 for puberty for those who say that a person is baaligh at 15 if no physical signs have come.  Likewise, when one takes an oath for a month "ash-Shahru hakathaa wa haakathaa, wa haakathaa..." ("A month is 30 days - or 29).  One who enters into a contract for a "year" - without specifying a year according to the non-Muslims (Gregorian), etc.  This topic was covered somewhat extensively this summer in Toronto.  

Perhaps the most important danger in living totally by the Gregorian calender would be: delays in paying zakaat.  For if a person pays every Gregorian year, then he would be 10-11 days late EVERY year.  After 30 years or so he would miss an entire year.  This is a pillar of Islaam.  Actually all four pillars after the shahaadatayn have some reliance on the hijri calender.  So it is important for a Muslim to be thouroughly aqcuainted with it.  May Allaah bless you.

And if you want to convert any significant date (Hijree to gregorian, or vice-versa), the following resource is good:

http://www.rabiah.com/convert/

And Allaah knows best.

Moosaa ibn John Richardson

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sajid_chauhan_81
01-03-2009 @ 1:49 AM    Notify Admin about this post
unspecified ساجد (Mumbai (India))
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Here is the date-converter from the Saudi Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Dawah and Guidance http://prayer.al-islam.com/convert.asp?l=eng

musa.ibn.wendell
01-03-2009 @ 10:20 AM    Notify Admin about this post
Abu Musa Musa Ibn Wendell Ball (Baltimore, Maryland, USA)
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as salaamu alaikum wa rahmahtullahi wa barakatuh

Barak Allahu Feekum, akhi Moosa wa akhi Sajid. According to the site provided by Moosa, it seems that my children and I would have been born during the month of Ramadhaan. My children would have been on a Thursday and myself on a Friday, wa Allahu Alam.  My date of birth would have been on Friday, 10 Ramadhaan 1378 A.H., and my children would have been on Thursday, 15 Ramadhaan 1420 A.H..  The site says there is a small probability of a one day error.  And according to the site provided by Sajid, Barak Allahu Feek, it seems my children and I dates of birth would be one day later than the dates given from the site provided by Moosa, Wa Allahu Alam.  This is good to know, alhamdulillah.

Barak Allahu Feekum.

as salaamu alaikum wa rahmahtullahi wa barakatuh.


Abu Musa Musa Ibn Wendell Ball Al Amriki

Baltimore, Maryland, USA

'Come and Sit With Us So That We Can Have Eaaman For An Hour' (Page 82 - Causes Behind the Increase and Decrease of Eemaan

dksadiq
01-12-2009 @ 6:37 PM    Notify Admin about this post
Damilola Sadiq ibn Owodunni (Lagos, Nigeria || Eastern Province, KSA)
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as-salaamu 'alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakaatuh,

جزاكم الله خيرا ikhwaan. I don't know if this makes any difference, but I noticed that (according to IslamicFinder) the different calculations for the prayer times are for different parts of the world. [See: http://www.islamicfinder.org/HelpPrayCal.html.] So, what I understand is that not all the methods of calculation would be suitable for the different countries. I believe that this would explain some of what our brother Adnaan found.

SubhaanAllah, I think what our Shaykh (Shaykh al-Albaanee rahimahuLlah, if I remember correctly) mentioned is true: that the lands are different i.e. some might be low and others high and so, the calculation methods which  treat all lands as one flat plain would be liable to errors. Apparently, the most correct thing would be to check with the naked eyes but it seems this would be difficult in many places especially for Fajr due to street lights etc which I understand make it hard to check the horizon for the true dawn.

Our brother Moosaa, may Allah reward you, I hope the upcoming part 2 of your article would include further discussion on how to best determine the times you mentioned for each of the 5 prayers; for example explanations of: the true dawn, the zenith of the sun, if the disappearance of the sun's disk is sufficient for sunset, etc and also what one should do in those times of the year when the shadow of an object never gets shorter than the object itself.

JazaakumAllahu khayraa,
Sadiq.

Adnaan.ibn.Salman
01-24-2009 @ 10:17 PM    Notify Admin about this post
Abu 'Abdirrahmaan Adnaan ibn Salman (Birmingham, UK.)
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Bismillaahirrahmaanirraheem,

This is Sh Al-Albaanee's (rahimahullaah rahmatan waasi'ah) full discussion related to this issue, in the context of Ramadaan:

Adnaan

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Sunnahs Neglected in Ramadaan
Author:Imaam Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaanee
Source:The Tape Set Silsilah al-Hudaa wan-Noor, Tape No. 590
Translated by SalafiPublications.Com


Question: "Could the Shaikh give us some words of benefit for the blessed month of Ramadaan, on this fine occasion"

Shaikh al-Albaanee, may Allaah have mercy upon him said, "Allaah, the Exalted and Most High, says in the Noble Quraan:

'O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may become people having Taqwaa.' [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 183]

So in this aayah, as will not be hidden to all those who are present, Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, informs the Ummah of Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), through this aayah, that He has made Fasting obligatory upon them just as He had made its like obligatory upon the nations before us. This is a matter that is well-known to all of the Muslims who read this aayah, and clearly understand its meaning. But what I wish to speak about is something else, a matter which very few of the general people notice - and this is the saying of Allaah, the Exalted and Most High, at the end of this aayah:

'...So that you may become people having Taqwaa.'

So Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, when He commands His believing servants, or obligates them with some Legislation, (then He) usually just mentions the command, without explaining the wisdom behind it. This is because the general wisdom behind Allaah, the Mighty and Majesticıs, placing duties upon His servants is that He should test them by it, so that it should become apparent (as to) those who will obey Him and those who will disobey Him, the Exalted and Most High.

However in this aayah, He mentioned something that is not found frequently in the Noble Quraan, which is that He mentioned the reason for the order to Fast, by His Saying:

'...So that you may become people having Taqwaa.'

So the wisdom behind the Believers' fasting is not just that they should prevent themselves from enjoyable and permissible good things, even though this is an obligation upon the fasting person - but this is not the only thing that is required and intended by this Fasting. Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, concluded His command to fast by saying:

'...So that you may become people having Taqwaa.'

Meaning: that the wisdom behind the prescription of Fasting is that the Muslim should increase in obedience to Allaah, the Exalted and Most High, in the month of Fasting, and become more obedient than he was before it.

Also the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) clearly stated and completely clarified this point of divine wisdom, by his (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) saying, as is reported in the Saheeh of al-Bukhaaree (no. 1903), that he (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, "Whoever does not abandon falsehood in speech and action, then Allaah has no need that he should leave his food and drink." Meaning: that Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, did not intend and desire, by the obligation of Fasting - which is to withhold for a stated time, well known to you all - that they should only withhold from eating and drinking. Rather they should also withhold from that which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, has forbidden with regard to sins and acts of disobedience to Him; and from that is falsehood in speech and action.

So the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) is emphasizing the aayah:

'...So that you may become people having Taqwaa.'

i.e. that you should, as an act of worship to draw you closer to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, in addition to withholding from food and drink, also withhold from forbidden actions such as backbiting, carrying tales to cause harm to people, false witness, lying and so on, with regard to those forbidden manners that we are all aware of.

Therefore it is obligatory that all the Muslims should be aware that actions, which disrupt the Fast, are not just the physical acts, which are generally known, which are eating, drinking and sexual intercourse. The Fast is not just that you withhold from this. Therefore some of the scholars differentiate, and divide those things which disrupt the Fast into two categories, and this is what I intend by this talk of mine at this time that is blessed, if Allaah wills.

This is especially important since those who deliver Khutbahs and admonish the people during Ramadaan, when they speak about those things which disrupt the Fast, then they only speak about the material things, those things that we have just mentioned - eating, drinking and sexual intercourse. But what they should do, as sincere advisers and people who give reminder to the Muslims in general, is to concentrate a great deal upon the second category of things which disrupt the Fast. This is because the people have become used to thinking that Fasting is just to refrain from the first category, to withhold from the material things. But there is another category of things, which disrupt the Fast, which we are able to call the non-material things that disrupt the Fast.

So you have just heard his (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) saying, "Whoever does not abandon falsehood in speech and action, then Allaah has no need that he should leave his food and drink."

Therefore every fasting person should examine himself and see: is he just withholding from the material things, or is he also withholding from those non-material things? Meaning: has he made his manners and behavior good when the blessed month of Ramadaan comes? If that is the case, then he has fulfilled the Saying of Allaah, the Exalted and Most High, at the end of the aayah:

'...So that you may become people having Taqwaa.'

But as for the one who restricts himself in his fasting to just withholding from food and drink, but who continues and persists upon the evil manners which he was upon previously, before Ramadaan, then this is not the Fasting that is desired and required from the wisdom behind the legislation of this noble month, which our Lord, the Mighty and Majestic indicates in His Saying:

'...So that you may become people having Taqwaa.'

So therefore we advise and remind our brother Muslims that they should remember this other category of things, those that are non-material, which disrupt the Fast, and it is something which the admonishers and those who seek to direct the people to the correct way rarely speak about, not to mention the general people, who are not aware of this category of things which disrupt the fast, i.e., the non-material things.

This is what I wanted to remind our brothers who are present in this fine gathering about, if Allaah wills, so that it may be a cause for their increasing in acts of worship, seeking to draw closer to Allaah, the Exalted and Most High, in this blessed month, the month of Fasting, which is such that we hope that Allaah, the Exalted and Most High, will guide and grant us all the success of fulfilling the due right of this blessed month, which is that we withhold from both the material and the non-material things that disrupt the Fast.

Furthermore in addition to this, I hope that you will pay attention to some affairs, which have been neglected by a majority of the general Muslims, not to mention those having knowledge.

There is a hadeeth that is very often neglected due to another hadeeth, because the majority of people are unable to reconcile in practice and application between them. This hadeeth is his (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) saying, "My Ummah will continue to be upon good for as long as they hasten to break the fast and delay the pre-dawn meal."

So here two matters were mentioned, and they are neglected by most of the people, and they are: hastening to break the fast, and delaying the pre-dawn meal (Suhoor).

As for neglect of the first matter, which is hastening to break the Fast, then in the view of some people it contradicts another hadeeth, which is his (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) saying, "My Ummah will continue to be upon good for as long as they hasten to pray the Maghrib Prayer."

So here we have two commands, to hasten with two matters. So it appears to some people that we cannot hasten to perform both of them together.

But reconciling between the command to hasten with breaking the Fast and the command to hasten to pray the Maghrib Prayer is a very easy matter. So it is something that our Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) made clear to us by his action and practice. He (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to break the Fast with three dates. He would eat three dates. Then he would pray the Maghrib Prayer, then he would eat again if he found that he needed to eat the evening meal.

But today we fall into two offences:

(i) Firstly we delay the Adhaan from its legislated time. Then after this delay comes another delay, which is that we sit down for a meal - except for a few people who are eager and pray the Maghrib Prayer in the mosque. But the majority of the people wait until they hear the Adhaan, and then they sit down to eat as if they are having a dinner, or their evening meal, and not just breaking their fast.

So the Adhaan these days - in most of the lands of Islaam, is, unfortunately, I have to say, and not just in Jordan, and I have known this from investigation, in most of the lands of Islaam - the Adhaan for Maghrib is given after the time it becomes due. And the reason for this is that we have abandoned adhering to and applying the Islamic rulings, and instead we have come to depend upon astronomical calculations. We depend upon the timetable.

But these time-tables are based upon astronomical calculations which count the land as being a single flat plane. So they give a time for this flat plane, whereas the reality is that the land, particularly in this land of ours varies, varying between the depression of valleys and the elevation of mountains. So it is not correct that a single time be given which covers the shore, the planes and the mountains. No, each part of the land has its own time. So therefore whoever is able in his place of residence, in his city or his village, to see the sun set with his own eye, then whatever time it sets at, that is the hastening that we have been commanded with in his (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) saying, which we just mentioned: 'My Ummah will continue to be upon good as long as they hasten to break the fast.' So the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was careful to implement this Sunnah by teaching it, and by putting it into practice.

As for his teaching, then he (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, in the hadeeth reported by al-Bukharee in his Saheeh (no. 1954), "If the night appears from this side," and he pointed towards the east, "and the day has departed from here," and he pointed towards the west, "and the sun has set, then the fasting person's fast is broken"

What does 'the fasting person's fast is broken' mean? It means he has entered under the ruling that he should break his fast. So then comes the previous ruling where the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) encouraged hastening to break the Fast, and the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to implement this, even when he was riding on a journey.

So it is reported in the Saheeh of al-Bukharee (no.1955) that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) ordered one of his Companions to prepare the Iftaar for him. So he replied, 'O Messenger of Allaah it is still daytime before us.' Meaning: the light of the sun, so even though it had set, yet its light was still clear in the west. So the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) did not respond to what he had said, rather he re-emphasized the command to him to prepare the Iftaar. So the narrator of the hadeeth who said, We could see daylight in front of us,ı meaning: the light of day, the light of the sun, When we broke our fast,ı said, "If one of us had climbed onto his camel he would have seen the sun." The sun had set from here, and the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) ordered one of the Companions to prepare the Iftaar - Why? To hasten upon good "My Ummah will continue upon good for as long as they hasten to break the Fast."

So what is important is that we notice that the Iftaar, which is legislated to be hastened must be done with a few dates. Then we must hasten to perform the Prayer. Then after this the people can sit and eat as they need.

This is the first matter, which I wanted to remind you of, and it is how to reconcile the two things that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) commanded we should hasten to perform. The first being the command to hasten the breaking of the Fast, and the second being the command to hasten the Maghrib Prayer. So the Iftaar should be done with some dates, as occurs in the Sunnah, and if dates are not available, then with some gulps of water. Then the Prayer should be prayed in congregation in the mosque.

The other matter which I want to remind you of is what occurs in the previous hadeeth, "And they delay the pre-dawn meal" meaning: what is required here is the opposite to the case of the Iftaar. So he (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) commanded us to hasten to perform the Iftaar. But as for the Suhoor, then it should be delayed. But what happens today is totally contrary to this, since many people eat their Suhoor before the appearance of Fajr by perhaps an hour. This is not befitting. This is contrary to the Sunnah shown by the saying of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and by his practice. So the Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to leave the Suhoor so late, that one of them would almost hear the Adhaan and he would still be eating because he had delayed the Suhoor.

Indeed there is an authentic hadeeth reported from the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) which shows the ease afforded by Islaam, to be counted as one of the principles of Islaam, which the Muslims are proud of, especially with regard to the matter of Fasting, since Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, concluded the aayahs concerning Fasting with His Saying:

'Allaah desires ease for you, and He does not desire to make things difficult for you.

So from this ease is his (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) saying, "If one of you hears the call to Prayer and the vessel is in the hand of one of you, then let him not put it down until he fulfils his need from it."

" If one of you hears the call to Prayer and the vessel" the vessel containing food, whether it be milk, some drink, water, anything which a person may take as Suhoor, and he hears the Adhaan, then he should not say, Now the food is forbidden due to the Adhaan being heard. The person who has had enough, it is not allowed for him to then have any more, whether it be a drink, or some fruit, when he has had his fill of whatever he was eating.

But as for the one who hears the Adhaan and he has not yet taken what he needs from the food and the drink, then the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) made that lawful for him. So he clearly said, in the clear and eloquent Arabic language, "If one of you hears the call to Prayer, and the vessel is in his hand, then let him not put it down until he fulfils his need from it."

And what is meant here by the call is the second call, the second Adhaan. It is not the first Adhaan, which they wrongly call the Adhaan of Imsaak (i.e. withholding). We must know that there is no basis for calling the first Adhaan the Adhaan for withholding (imsaak).

The second Adhaan is when we are to withhold, and this is clearly stated in the Quraan, since Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, says:

'And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes clear to you from the black thread of the night.'

So eating becomes forbidden at the start of the time of the Fajr Prayer. There is no separation between these two things. There is no withholding from food and drink for a quarter of an hour, or less than that, or more than that, before the start of the time for the Fajr Prayer. Not at all.

Because the Prayer becomes due when the true dawn appears, and food becomes forbidden for the fasting person when the true dawn appears. So there is no separation between these two matters at all.

So therefore there occurs in the hadeeth agreed upon by al-Bukharee and Muslim, from the hadeeth of ıAbdullaah Ibn ıUmar Ibn al-Khattaab (raa), that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, "Let not the Adhaan of Bilaal deceive you..." meaning, the first Adhaan, "...because he gives the Adhaan in order to awaken the person who is sleeping, and so that the person who wishes to eat the pre-dawn meal can do so. So eat and drink until Ibn Umm Maktoon gives the Adhaan."

Ibn Umm Maktoon, whose name was 'Amr, was a blind man, and he was the one about whom the Saying of Allaah, the Exalted and Most High, came down:

'He frowned and turned away, that a blind man had come to him' to the end of the Ayaat.

So he used to give the second Adhaan, the Adhaan which means that eating becomes prohibited and that it is now time for the Fajr Prayer.

How did he used to give the Adhaan when he was blind? This is a question, which naturally occurs to some people. 'Amr Ibn Umm Maktoom used to climb on the roof of the mosque, but he could not see the dawn, so he would wait until someone passing by saw the dawn. So when someone saw that the dawn had appeared and spread across the horizon, they would say to him, It is morning. It is morning. Then he would give the Adhaan.

So you will notice here that the Adhaan of 'Amr ibn Umm Maktoom was after the Fajr had appeared, and had been seen by the people whilst they were walking in the streets. So when it was said to him, "It is morning. It is morning," he would give the Adhaan.

So therefore there is latitude in the affair, since the muadhdhin would be delayed in giving the Adhaan until he heard the people telling him, "It is morning, it is morning." And then Allaahıs Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: "If one of you hears the call to Prayer and the vessel is in his hand, then let him not put it down until he has fulfilled his need from it."

So Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, spoke truly when He said at the end of those Aayahs related to Fasting:

'Allaah desires to make things easy for you, and He does not desire to make things difficult for you.'

and '...that you should complete the number of days, and that you should glorify Allaah by mentioning takbeer for His having guided you, and that you should be thankful. '

So therefore from the Fiqh that is to be criticized, and which runs contrary to this Sunnah, is that a person says, "If someone hears the Adhaan and has some food in his mouth, then he must spit it out." So this is over strictness, and (ghuluww) exceeding the limits in the Religion, and the Lord of all of the creation admonished us, and reminded us, in His Book and in the Sunnah of His Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) that we should not exceed the due limits in our Religion. So He said, in the Noble Quraan:

'O People of the Book! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, and do not say anything about Allaah except the truth.'

And our Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said to us, or he (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, "Beware of (ghuluww) exceeding the limits in the Religion. Because those who came before you were destroyed by their exceeding the limits in their Religion."

So Allaahıs Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has made it clear to us that there is latitude and a margin of ease in the matter of a person's taking suhoor, to the extent that he said: "If one of you hears the call to Prayer whilst the vessel is in his hand, then let him not put it down until he has completed his need from it."

So it is opposition to Allaah and to the Messenger that a person says that one who hears the Adhaan whilst he has food in his mouth must spit it out onto the ground. This is not from the Sunnah. Rather this is contrary to the Sunnah, and is contrary to the clear command of the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).

And I have been asked many times, so I will not leave open the need for such a question, but rather I will precede you in (answering) it, by stating that this hadeeth is to be found in some of the most famous books of the Sunnah. From them being the Sunan of Aboo Daawood, and it is the third book from the well-known six books. The first of which is Saheehul-Bukhaaree, the second being Saheeh Muslim, and the third being the Sunan of Aboo Daawood.

This hadeeth is to be found in it, and it is likewise reported by Aboo 'Abdillaah al-Haakim in his Mustadrak, and it is likewise reported by the Imaam of the Sunnah, Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, rahimahullaah, in his tremendous book known as the Musnad of Imaam Ahmad.

So the hadeth is not a strange hadeeth, rather it is a well-known hadeeth, and was reported by the Imaams of the Sunnah in the early times, and with an authentic chain of narration.

So here I say, to conclude this talk, since perhaps some of you have questions, which we will answer if Allaah wills, so I will conclude it with his (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) saying "Allaah loves that His allowances be acted upon just as He loves that His prescribed duties be carried out," and in one narration, "Just as He hates that disobedience to Him be committed."

So there are two narrations, "Allaah loves that His allowances be acted upon just as He loves that His prescribed duties be carried out", and the second narration is, " as He hates that disobedience to Him be committed."

So therefore the Muslim should not practice false piety, and (as a result) refrain from obeying the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) in that which he encouraged us upon and clarified to us.

And what has been said is sufficient, and all praise is for Allaah, the Lord of all of the creation."



abdul.basir
03-06-2010 @ 4:34 AM    Notify Admin about this post
Abu Mujaahid Abdul Basir ibn G. Rose (Africa)
Member
Posts: 55
Joined: Sep 2002
          
As Salaamu alaikum wa Rahmatullaah,
Is anyone aware of akhouna Moosaa ever posting the 2nd part of the Important Rulings, Guidelines and Cautions of the Prayer Schedules.  If so, can someone provide the link.  If not, akhi Moosaa, this ia a reminder to post it inshaaAllaah.
As Salaamu alaikum wa Rahmatullaah
Abdul Basir






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