Topic: 1 Saa' = 3 litres // 1 Mudd = 750ml

Moosaa    -- 15-09-2009 @ 7:33 PM
1 Saa' = 3 Litres  //  1 Mudd = 750ml

In the Perfect Name of Allaah...

A prophetic mudd (1/4 saa') in modern volume measurements is .75L (or 750mL), which means that a saa' is three litres.

[The chain of transmission for this prophetic measurement]

This mudd was measured up to Sh. Yahyaa al-Mudarris' mudd (may Allaah preserve him), which was measured up to the mudd of his shaykh al-'Allaamah Aboo Sa'eed Muhammad 'Abdullaah al-Laknawee (d.1400), which was measured up to his shaykh's mudd... and so on, all the way back to the mudd of Zayd ibn Thaabit (may Allaah be pleased with him) that was in use in al-Andelus and elsewhere all the way to (at least) the 4th century...

Al-'Allaamah al-Laknawee (may Allaah have Mercy on him) - a former teacher at the Haram in Makkah and at Daar al-Hadeeth, an Indian scholar grounded in Tawheed and firm against the people of desires - said about this mudd:

This is the mudd that the Prophet (may Allaah raise his rank and grant him peace) was speaking about when he prayed, "O Allaah!  Put blessings in our saa' and our mudd!"  This was collected by the two shaykhs (al-Bukhaaree and Muslim).  Further, he (may Allaah raise his rank and grant him peace) used to make wudhoo' using this mudd, and he used to take a bath using a saa'.

Source: An-Najm al-Baadee, Shaykh Yahyaa's biography (p.63)

In one narration of the hadeeth in Saheeh Muslim, the Prophet (may Allaah raise his rank and grant him peace) said when praying for Allaah to bless the mudd and the saa': "blessings upon blessings."

So whoever wants to give their zakaat al-fitr using this measurement - as it was prescribed - is free to do so.  May Allaah bless the Muslims and accept their fasting and their zakaat.

Moosaa ibn John Richardson

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sajid_chauhan_81    -- 16-09-2009 @ 7:02 PM
  We generally give Zakaat al-Fitr in terms of dates, barley, rice, etc. which are measured in kilograms/pound. How do we convert these litres into kilograms/pounds? And this liter to kilogram/pounds conversion would depend on the liquid, isn't it?

Is there a chain of transmission for measurement of Saa' in terms of kilograms/pounds?

JazaakAllah khayr.

Moosaa    -- 16-09-2009 @ 11:08 PM
  A way of keeping it simple, using the modern equivilent of a saa' (3L), is to measure out .75L of the food you intend to use in a large measuring cup, then use that same amount (whether you convert it to weight or not) a total of four times for each person's zakaat.

This works for any food type, and it eliminates the need for lengthy calculations and conversions that differ from one food type or another, especially since some kinds of rice -for example- are heavier than others.  Its true!  Even within one food type there are different kinds that have different densities and weights.

So if you want to give out rice, for example, measure 750ml of it in a measuring cup.  If you want to give the zakaat in a sealed unopened container, then weigh the 750ml you measured and then multiply by four.  That's the weight of one person's zakaat al-fitr, using that exact kind of food.  Then multiply that by the number of people you are giving zakaat on behalf of.

Step-by-Step Illustration

Step 1: Determine the number of people you are giving zakaat al-fitr on behalf of.

A man has a wife and four children, and his parents have asked him to give out zakaat al-fitr for them too.  So he needs to give out 8 units, or saa's, of food.

Step 2: Determine how much one saa' (3 litres) of the selected food item is.

The man in our example decides to use barley.  He can either:

(a) Measure out 3 litres of barley in a large measuring pitcher, if he doesn't mind opening the container, and it will not be seen as unacceptable to the poor person.

(b) Measure out 750 ml of barley in a measuring cup.  Weigh this amount.  Multiply its weight by 4.  This is one saa'.  Let's say in this example 750ml of the selected barley weighed 400 grams.  400g x 4 = 1.6kg

Step 3: Multiply the measurement from step 2 by the number of people you are giving on behalf of (from step 1).

This is done one of two ways:

(a) 3 litres x 8 = 24 litres of barley as in this example (based on the original volume)

(b) 1.6kg x 8 = 12.8 kilograms in this example (coverted to weight)

I hope this walkthrough helps.

Moosaa ibn John Richardson

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IbnJiffry    -- 17-09-2009 @ 12:21 PM
  The Amount:
Ibn 'Umar reported: (( Allah's Messenger enjoined the payment of one Saa' * of dates or one Saa' of barley as Zakaatul-fitr on every Muslim slave or free, male or female, young or old, and he ordered that it be paid before the people went out to offer the 'Eed prayer.)) [al-Bukhaaree]

Aboo Sa'eed Al-Khudree said: ((We used to take out as the Zakaatul-fitr one saa' of grain, or one saa' of barley, or one saa' of dates, or one saa' of cheese or one saa' of raisins.)) [al-Bukhaaree & Muslim]

* a mudd is a measurement consisting of the two hands cupped together. A Saa' is 4 amdaad (4 "mudds").
So a Saa' is 4 cupped hands full of those types of food mentioned in the ahaadeeth above:

The head of the household pays 1 saa' per member of his household [ 4 people --> 4 saa' --> 16 double-handfuls of grain, barley, dates, raisins, etc.]

When to give it:
Zakaatul-Fitr must be given before the 'Eed prayer.
Al-Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim said:  

"And it was from his guidance and way (Sallallaahu 'alayhi wasallam) would give this sadaqah before the 'Eed prayer.  And (it comes) in the Sunan from him, that he said: (( Whoever distributes it before the prayer, then it is an accepted zakaah, and whover distributes it after the prayer then it is a sadaqah from the (normal) sadaqaat.)) [Aboo Daawood (#1609), Ibn Maajah (#1827) and others. Declared hasan by Shaykh al-Albaanee]  
And in the Saheehayn, from Ibn 'Umar, who said: (( The Messenger of Allaah (Sallallaahu 'alayhi wasallam) ordered with Zakaatul-Fitr that it be given before the people go out to the ('Eed) prayer.))  

And what is necessitated by these two hadeeth, is that it is not permissible to delay it to after the 'Eed prayer, and that it passes with the completion of the prayer, and this is what is correct."  [Zaadul-Ma'aad (2/20-21)]

To whom should it be given:
Al-Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim said:
"And it was from his guidance and way (Sallallaahu 'alayhi wasallam) to specify the masaakeen (the poor) by this sadaqah, and he did not divide it amongst the eight categories (mentioned in the Qur'aan for the obligatory Zakaah) handful by handful, nor did he order that, and no one from the Companions did that, nor those after them. Rather one of the the two sayings with us is: that it is not permissible to given it except the the masaakeen specifically. And this saying is more correct than the saying of the obligation of dividing it among the eight categories."  [Zaad (2/21)]
For us in Kuwait, the best place to find grain, barley and the like and measure it correctly is Sultaan Center (particularly in Kout Mall and possibly in Salmiyya) and also in the grains market inside Souq al-Mubaarakiyyah in Kuwait City.  Likewise many of the Jam'iyyahs have date stalls where one could measure out dates to give.  One does not give this Zakaat in money, as this opposes the Sunnah and is bid'ah, as is mentioned by Shaykh Ibn 'Uthaymeen and others.  Our Shaykh Ahmad as-Subay'ee also explained that buying a big bag of rice to give is not the same as one going and measuring with his own hands.  And Allaah knows best.

Barakallahu lakum,

Abu Maslamah As Sayalaani

Moosaa    -- 17-09-2009 @ 8:36 PM
  Important Comment:

The mudd is not simply a double-handful.

A mudd is an actual physical container (like a small bowl or pot, or a large cup), a standardized unit of measurement, one that was widely in use in the time of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam) in the marketplaces and in their houses.

It is based on a double-handful - don't get confused - but the Companions used to buy and sell using the containers (the mudd and the saa'), not their own individual double-handfuls, and they used to give their zakaat al-fitr with these containers (the saa' and the mudd).  The Prophet (sallaaahu 'alayhe wa sallam) used to have Zayd ibn Thaabit measure out mudds and saa's of food using the standardized mudd and saa'.

So Allaah did not legislate that big-handed people have to give more zakaat al-fitr, and people with small hands give less.  Rather there is a standardized measurement to be used, according to how it has been legislated.

Thus, it is known that it is incorrect to define the mudd referred to in the texts as simply anyone's double-handful, rather the mudd referred to was an actual container, which our scholars throughout history have busied themselves recording its size, shape, volume, and description.

And Allaah knows best.

Moosaa ibn John Richardson

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ubaydullaah    -- 19-09-2009 @ 5:12 AM
  Asalaamu'alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakatuhu ya akhee, May Allaah reward you much for this. I have searched everywhere for it, Alhamdulillaah, i finally got it. I will like to know if its permisible to give to masjid to do the zakat fitr for you. i don't know how they will know how much money is equivalent to how much grain to make the right calculation.

Secondly,Ya akhee Kareem Moosa, can you pls explain zakat of wealth as well. Allaahu yubareek feek as you explain in details.


IbnJiffry    -- 19-09-2009 @ 6:57 AM
  Dear Br. Moosa!

Can you kindly provide us with the references in which the measurements are stated as you have mentioned here. This is intended to be aware of the actual way of measuring the Fithra, insha Allah wa Tha'alaa. May Allah bless you!

Barakallahu lakum,

Abu Maslamah As Sayalaani

Moosaa    -- 22-09-2009 @ 9:35 PM
Can you kindly provide us with the references in which the measurements are stated as you have mentioned here.
Please re-read the first post where the reference is cited.  May Allaah bless you.

Moosaa ibn John Richardson

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sajid_chauhan_81    -- 23-09-2009 @ 4:31 AM
  Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: (The standard) weight is the weight of the people of Mecca, and the (standard) measure is the measure of the people of Medina. Sunan Abu Dawood Chapter 22 no. 3334

This hadith makes quite clear that the mudd had to be the measurement of the people of Madeenah and not necessarily one's own mudd.

Further, Anas (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) said: The Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to make wudhu with a mudd (of water) and make ghusl with a saa' or up to five mudds. [Muslim (1/156) and others].

It seems reasonable to make wudhu with 750ml water. But it seems almost impossible to make wudhu with the amount of water which is held by the two hands cupped together even if one completes only the rukn and wajibat of wudhu.

WAllahu aalam.

Moosaa    -- 23-09-2009 @ 7:44 AM
Asalaamu'alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakatuhu... I will like to know if its permisible to give to masjid to do the zakat fitr for you...
wa 'alaykumus-salaamu wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh.

Sorry for the late reply.  May Allaah bless you Ubaydullaah!

Moosaa ibn John Richardson

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ubaydullaah    -- 25-09-2009 @ 9:10 PM
  JazakAllaahu Khayran.

May Allaah reward you for this.

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